Withdrawal From Substance Disorder

Resources for Patients and Caregivers

Physical and mental symptoms that occur after stopping or reducing intake of a drug.
The characteristics of withdrawal depend on what drug is being discontinued.
Symptoms may include anxiety, fatigue, sweating, vomiting, depression, seizures, and hallucinations.
Treatment includes supportive care as well as medications to address symptoms and prevent complications.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: 57-Withdrawal from Substance Disorder
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area: 

Resources for Physicians, Counselors and Researchers


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Physiological Characterization of the Transporter-Mediated Uptake of the Reversible Male Contraceptive H2-Gamendazole Across the Blood-Testis Barrier
    by Raymond K Hau on July 2, 2022

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is formed by a tight network of Sertoli cells (SCs) to limit the movement of reproductive toxicants from the blood into the male genital tract. Transporters expressed at the basal membranes of SCs also influence the disposition of drugs across the BTB. The reversible, non-hormonal contraceptive, H2-gamendazole (H2-GMZ), is an indazole carboxylic acid analog that accumulates over 10 times more in the testes compared to other organs. However, the mechanism(s) by...

  • Safety and efficacy of Yupingfeng granules in children with recurrent respiratory tract infection: A randomized clinical trial
    by Baoping Xu on July 1, 2022

    IMPORTANCE: Recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRTI) is common in children. Inappropriate RRTI treatment will lead to asthma and other diseases, thereby seriously affecting the growth and physical health of children. Immune function modulation can prevent and alleviate childhood RRTI. Yupingfeng (YPF), a patented traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has immunomodulatory effects and is widely used in China to treat children with RRTI.

  • Deranged Haemostasis: Rifampin-Induced Coagulopathy
    by Raghu Tiperneni on July 1, 2022

    Prothrombin time (PT), first used in 1935, is the most commonly employed marker of coagulopathy to assess bleeding tendency. It is a screening test and measures the time in seconds to the formation of a clot after platelet-poor plasma has been mixed with a thromboplastin reagent consisting of tissue factor, lipids and calcium chloride ions. The International Normalized Ratio (INR) is a standardized number based on the PT of the patient. It is used by clinicians to measure the effectiveness of...

  • Mechanism of opioid addiction and its intervention therapy: Focusing on the reward circuitry and mu-opioid receptor
    by Jia-Jia Zhang on July 1, 2022

    Opioid abuse and addiction have become a global pandemic, posing tremendous health and social burdens. The rewarding effects and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms are the two mainstays of opioid addiction. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs), a member of opioid receptors, play important roles in opioid addiction, mediating both the rewarding effects of opioids and opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS). The underlying mechanism of MOR-mediated opioid rewarding effects and withdrawal syndrome is of vital...