Restless Legs Syndrome

A condition characterized by a nearly irresistible urge to move the legs, typically in the evenings.
Restless legs syndrome typically occurs while sitting or lying down. It generally worsens with age and can disrupt sleep.
The main symptom is a nearly irresistible urge to move the legs.
Getting up and moving around helps the unpleasant feeling temporarily go away. Self-care steps, lifestyle changes, or medications may help.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW187
Diagnosis: Restless Legs Syndrome (
US Patients: 2-15% of the population, higher %s when along with some other difficulties.
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M;F2
Age Onset: “Early Onset RLS” hereditary, starts before age 45 and worsens over time. Late-onset RLS starts suddenly after 45, doesn’t worsen’
Brain Area: genetic, autosomal dominant (only needs gene from one parent)
Symptoms: Long term-urging leg (and sometimes arm) movement; sensation/pain begins while awake but relaxing.
Progression: worsened by any surgery, but especially back surgery or injury
Causes: “motor restlessness” – worsen by relaxation, iron deficiency, dopamine changes, reduced leg-oxygen levels, some medications
Medications: gabapentin, opioids – when resistant to other medications
Therapies: regular exercise, good sleep practices, stopping smoking; stretching legs and walking bring temporary relief


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Spectrum of Movement Disorders in two Movement Disorders Centers in the Philippines
    by Jeryl Ritzi T Yu on November 29, 2021

    CONCLUSION: The most common movement disorders managed were parkinsonism, myoclonus and tremor. The most common diagnoses were Parkinson's disease, hemifacial spasm and essential tremor. This study highlights the spectrum of movement disorders encountered in two specialty clinics in two Philippine tertiary hospitals. Given these varied cases, there is also a need for more movement specialists and centers dedicated to movement disorders to manage these cases.

  • Effectiveness and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    by Yu-Chi Su on November 27, 2021

    Our study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin type A in patients with restless legs syndrome. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, up to 12 June 2021, for published articles. We enrolled randomized controlled clinical trials and non-randomized controlled studies involving patients with restless legs syndrome who were treated with botulinum toxin. Quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane risk of bias...

  • Non-anemic iron deficiency: correlations between symptoms and iron status parameters
    by Julien Beatrix on November 23, 2021

    CONCLUSION: We identified two symptoms significantly more reported by non-anemic iron-deficient menstruating women: recent hair loss for serum ferritin (SF) ≤ 20 µg/l and restless legs syndrome for SF ≤ 50 µg/l. Non-anemic iron deficiency may also impact their quality of life, but further investigation is needed. If one of these symptoms is reported in primary care, the possibility of a symptomatic iron deficiency cannot be ruled out, and iron supplementation should be considered.

  • Restless legs syndrome and related factors in people with multiple sclerosis in Turkey
    by Asiye Tuba Ozdogar on November 16, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the presence of restless legs syndrome is high in persons with MS compared to healthy controls. Advanced age, disease duration, and higher disability level could be related to the increased rate of restless legs syndrome in persons with MS, especially those with high-frequency symptoms.