Phobia-Phobic Disorders

A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Phobias typically result in a rapid onset of fear and are present for more than six months.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW166
Diagnosis: Phobia-Phobic Disorders
US Patients: 8.7%-18.1% suffer-may not be patients;
World Patients: Specific-6-8% in Western world; 2-4% Asia, Africa & Latin America; Social-7% US; 0.5-2.5% elsewhere; agoraphobia-1.7%
Sex Ratio: M;W2, Phobias are the most common mental illness-challenge among women.
Age Onset: Ages 10-17; During or after the event lasting 6-months to permanently; 75% of those with phobias have multiple phobias.
Brain Area: Insula involved with the autonomic functions; anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal & medial prefrontal cortexes
Symptoms: an anxiety disorder with persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Phobias can be specific, social or agoraphobia-places
Progression: Range from mild concern to panic attacks-lose control over themselves physically.
Causes: Fear conditioning; traumatizing event; observing others who fear; the basolateral amygdala keeps a memory with the hippocampus
Medications: Social phobias-antidepressants, benzodiazepines or beta blockers//EMDR-Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing
Therapies: Specific phobias (such as, spiders, snakes, heights)use-exposure therapy; social phobias-systematic desensitization, relaxation

Youtube Video: Phobias? Why Do We Have Them?

Amazon or Library Book: The Anxiety and Phobia Workbook

Click the book to link or order from Amazon.

Support Group: Facebook-phobiassupportgroup; 609-713-2963 (Phobia Anxiety Support Group)


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Treatment resistance in anxiety disorders-Definition and treatment options
    by Katharina Domschke on March 4, 2024

    Treatment resistance in anxiety disorders represents a clinical challenge, contributes to the chronicity of the diseases as well as sequential comorbidities, and is associated with a significant individual and socioeconomic burden. This narrative review presents the operational definition of treatment resistance in anxiety disorders according to international consensus criteria (< 50% reduction in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, HAM‑A, score or < 50% reduction in the Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI,...

  • A Dynamic Foundation: Aberrations of Sleep Architecture and Its Association With Clinical and Sub-clinical Psychopathology
    by Richard C Todd on March 1, 2024

    This investigation centered on the hypnagogic and hypnopompic wake-sleep/sleep-wake transition states and the associated exploration of hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs), and sleep paralysis (SP) on psychiatric exacerbation and paradoxical masking. The study aims to discern causality by examining how these sleep-related experiences may contribute to the emergence or exacerbation of psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions, particularly, pertaining to the clinical or sub-clinical...

  • Mental health services for German university students: acceptance of intervention targets and preference for delivery modes
    by Fanny Kählke on March 1, 2024

    CONCLUSION: In-person services are preferred, yet half of the students consider using IMI, preferably aiming for a combination of at least two study-related intervention targets. Student mental health care services should offer a combination of accepted targets in different delivery modes to maximize service utilization.

  • Psychological Factors Associated with Functional Tic-like Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    by Lindsay Berg on March 1, 2024

    Functional tic-like behaviours (FTLB) are a female predominant functional neurological disorder that escalated in incidence during the SARS CoV2 pandemic. This study compared social and adaptive functioning, social media use, pandemic experiences, and psychiatric comorbidities between FTLB (n = 35), Tourette Syndrome (TS) (n = 22), and neurotypical (NT) (n = 25) participants ages 11 to 25 years. The psychiatric comorbidity burden for participants with FTLB was formidable, with frequencies...