Parkinson’s Disease

A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors.
Nerve cell damage in the brain causes dopamine levels to drop, leading to the symptoms of Parkinson’s.
Parkinson’s often starts with a tremor in one hand. Other symptoms are slow movement, stiffness, and loss of balance.
Medications can help control the symptoms of Parkinson’s.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW153
Diagnosis: Parkinson’s Disease (Very complex; please read the Wikipedia article.)
US Patients: 2-6X likelihood of dementia
World Patients: 6.2Mil&117,400 Deaths (2015)
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: Over 60, usually; unless “early-onset Parkinson’s”
Brain Area: Cell deaths among the subantia nigra leads to dopamine deficits; Cells die from proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons
Symptoms: tremor, slowness(bradykinesia), stiffness(excessive muscle contraction) and postural instability(10% fall weekly)
Progression: As it progresses, poor decision-making, less impulse control, impaired recall, less control of attention
Causes: genetics, injuries, pesticides;brain lesions from strokes;alpha-synuclein protein in the brain buildup; 50% have hallucinations
Medications: L-DOPA; deep brain stimulation by microelectrodes reduces muscular symptoms;
Therapies: Imaging by MRI, T2* and SW;, neuromelanin-MRI; Diffusion, MRI; PET; SPECT; DaTSCAN is the only FDA approved way to distinguish.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Test-retest reliability of physical activity questionnaires in Parkinson's disease
    by Samuel Ånfors on October 16, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: Single-item questions with a longer time frame (6 or 12 months) for physical activity were shown to be more reliable than multi-item questionnaires such as the IPAQ-SF and PASE in individuals with Parkinson's disease without cognitive impairments. There is a need to develop a core outcome set to measure physical activity in people with Parkinson's disease, and there might be a need to develop new physical activity questionnaires.

  • Gene Therapy Approach with an Emphasis on Growth Factors: Theoretical and Clinical Outcomes in Neurodegenerative Diseases
    by Della Grace Thomas Parambi on October 16, 2021

    The etiology of many neurological diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown and still needs more effective and specific therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy has a promising future in treating neurodegenerative disorders by correcting the genetic defects or by therapeutic protein delivery and is now an attraction for neurologists to treat brain disorders, like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, spinocerebellar...

  • Disease-modifying treatment of Parkinson's disease by phytochemicals: targeting multiple pathogenic factors
    by Makoto Naoi on October 16, 2021

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by typical motor symptoms, loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, and accumulation of Lewy body composed of mutated α-synuclein. However, now it is considered as a generalized disease with multiple pathological features. Present available treatments can ameliorate symptoms at least for a while, but only a few therapies could delay progressive neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons. Lewy body accumulates in peripheral tissues many years before motor...

  • Decision Making in Parkinson's Disease: An analysis of the studies using the Iowa Gambling Task
    by Laura Colautti on October 16, 2021

    In Parkinson's Disease (PD) impairments in decision making can occur, in particular because of the tendency towards risky and rewarding options. The Iowa Gambling Task has been widely used to investigate decision processes involving these options. The task assesses the ability to manage risk and to learn from feedback. The present paper aims at critically examining those studies in which this task has been administered to PD patients, in order to understand possible anomalies in patients'...