Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease is a disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors.
Nerve cell damage in the brain causes dopamine levels to drop, leading to the symptoms of Parkinson’s.
Parkinson’s often starts with a tremor in one hand. Other symptoms are slow movement, stiffness, and loss of balance.
Medications can help control the symptoms of Parkinson’s.

Parkinson’s Disease is a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Symptoms:

People may experience:
Tremor: can occur at rest, in the hands, limbs, or can be postural
Muscular: stiff muscles, difficulty standing, difficulty walking, difficulty with bodily movements, involuntary movements, muscle rigidity, problems with coordination, rhythmic muscle contractions, slow bodily movement, or slow shuffling gait
Sleep: early awakening, nightmares, restless sleep, or sleep disturbances
Whole body: fatigue, dizziness, poor balance, or restlessness
Cognitive: amnesia, confusion in the evening hours, dementia, or difficulty thinking and understanding
Speech: difficulty speaking, soft speech, or voice box spasms
Nasal: distorted sense of smell or loss of smell
Urinary: dribbling of urine or leaking of urine
Mood: anxiety or apathy
Facial: jaw stiffness or reduced facial expression
Also common: blank stare, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, drooling, falling, fear of falling, loss in contrast sensitivity, neck tightness, small handwriting, trembling, unintentional writhing, or weight loss

Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW153
Diagnosis: Parkinson’s Disease (Very complex; please read the Wikipedia article.)
US Patients: 2-6X likelihood of dementia
World Patients: 6.2Mil&117,400 Deaths (2015)
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: Over 60, usually; unless “early-onset Parkinson’s”
Brain Area: Cell deaths among the subantia nigra leads to dopamine deficits; Cells die from proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons
Symptoms: tremor, slowness(bradykinesia), stiffness(excessive muscle contraction) and postural instability(10% fall weekly)
Progression: As it progresses, poor decision-making, less impulse control, impaired recall, less control of attention
Causes: genetics, injuries, pesticides;brain lesions from strokes;alpha-synuclein protein in the brain buildup; 50% have hallucinations
Medications: L-DOPA; deep brain stimulation by microelectrodes reduces muscular symptoms;
Therapies: Imaging by MRI, T2* and SW;, neuromelanin-MRI; Diffusion, MRI; PET; SPECT; DaTSCAN is the only FDA approved way to distinguish.

4 CURRENT ARTICLES
FROM PUBMED

The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.