Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease is a disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors.
Nerve cell damage in the brain causes dopamine levels to drop, leading to the symptoms of Parkinson’s.
Parkinson’s often starts with a tremor in one hand. Other symptoms are slow movement, stiffness, and loss of balance.
Medications can help control the symptoms of Parkinson’s.

Parkinson’s Disease is a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.


People may experience:
Tremor: can occur at rest, in the hands, limbs, or can be postural
Muscular: stiff muscles, difficulty standing, difficulty walking, difficulty with bodily movements, involuntary movements, muscle rigidity, problems with coordination, rhythmic muscle contractions, slow bodily movement, or slow shuffling gait
Sleep: early awakening, nightmares, restless sleep, or sleep disturbances
Whole body: fatigue, dizziness, poor balance, or restlessness
Cognitive: amnesia, confusion in the evening hours, dementia, or difficulty thinking and understanding
Speech: difficulty speaking, soft speech, or voice box spasms
Nasal: distorted sense of smell or loss of smell
Urinary: dribbling of urine or leaking of urine
Mood: anxiety or apathy
Facial: jaw stiffness or reduced facial expression
Also common: blank stare, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, drooling, falling, fear of falling, loss in contrast sensitivity, neck tightness, small handwriting, trembling, unintentional writhing, or weight loss

Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW153
Diagnosis: Parkinson’s Disease (Very complex; please read the Wikipedia article.)
US Patients: 2-6X likelihood of dementia
World Patients: 6.2Mil&117,400 Deaths (2015)
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: Over 60, usually; unless “early-onset Parkinson’s”
Brain Area: Cell deaths among the subantia nigra leads to dopamine deficits; Cells die from proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons
Symptoms: tremor, slowness(bradykinesia), stiffness(excessive muscle contraction) and postural instability(10% fall weekly)
Progression: As it progresses, poor decision-making, less impulse control, impaired recall, less control of attention
Causes: genetics, injuries, pesticides;brain lesions from strokes;alpha-synuclein protein in the brain buildup; 50% have hallucinations
Medications: L-DOPA; deep brain stimulation by microelectrodes reduces muscular symptoms;
Therapies: Imaging by MRI, T2* and SW;, neuromelanin-MRI; Diffusion, MRI; PET; SPECT; DaTSCAN is the only FDA approved way to distinguish.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • The Gut-Brain Axis and Its Relation to Parkinson's Disease: A Review
    by Emily M Klann on January 24, 2022

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein protein (Lewy bodies) in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and other related circuitry, which contribute to the development of both motor (bradykinesia, tremors, stiffness, abnormal gait) and non-motor symptoms (gastrointestinal issues, urinogenital complications, olfaction dysfunction, cognitive impairment). Despite tremendous progress in the field, the exact...

  • Motor-Cognitive Treadmill Training With Virtual Reality in Parkinson's Disease: The Effect of Training Duration
    by Elisa Pelosin on January 24, 2022

    Treadmill training with virtual reality (TT + VR) has been shown to improve gait performance and to reduce fall risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no consensus on the optimal training duration. This study is a sub-study of the V-TIME randomized clinical trial (NCT01732653). In this study, we explored the effect of the duration of training based on the motor-cognitive interaction on motor and cognitive performance and on fall risk in subjects with PD. Patients in Hoehn and Yahr...

  • Effects of Olympic Combat Sports on Health-Related Quality of Life in Middle-Aged and Older People: A Systematic Review
    by Pablo Valdés-Badilla on January 24, 2022

    Olympic combat sports are unconventional physical activity strategies to train middle-aged and older people with and without health problems. This systematic review aimed to assess the available body of published peer-reviewed articles related to the effects of Olympic combat sports interventions (boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, wrestling) on health-related quality of life in adults aged 45 and older. The search was carried out in five generic databases until July 2021 and the protocol...

  • Sex Differences in Brain and Cognition in de novo Parkinson's Disease
    by Javier Oltra on January 24, 2022

    Background and Objective: Brain atrophy and cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by sex. We aimed to investigate sex differences in brain atrophy and cognition in de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods: Clinical, neuropsychological and T1-weighted MRI data from 205 PD patients (127 males: 78 females) and 69 healthy controls (40 males: 29 females) were obtained from the PPMI dataset. Results: PD males had a greater motor and rapid eye movement sleep...