Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disorder

Resources for Patients and Caregivers

Non-rapid eye movement sleep, also known as quiescent sleep, is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4. Rapid eye movement sleep is not included. There are distinct electroencephalographic and other characteristics seen in each stage.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: 32-Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disorder
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Resources for Physicians, Counselors and Researchers


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • A specific circuit in the midbrain detects stress and induces restorative sleep
    by Xiao Yu on June 30, 2022

    In mice, social defeat stress (SDS), an ethological model for psychosocial stress, induces sleep. Such sleep could enable resilience, but how stress promotes sleep is unclear. Activity-dependent tagging revealed a subset of ventral tegmental area γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-somatostatin (VTA^(Vgat-Sst)) cells that sense stress and drive non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep through the lateral hypothalamus and also inhibit corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) release in the paraventricular...

  • Associations of Sleep Disorders With Depressive Symptoms in Early and Prodromal Parkinson's Disease
    by Jiangnan Ma on June 27, 2022

    CONCLUSION: Our study shows that sleep disorders, including pRBD and daytime sleepiness, are associated with depression at baseline and longitudinally, which is partially mediated by the autonomic dysfunction in early and prodromal PD, with an implication that sleep management is of great value for disease surveillance.

  • Effects of Alcohol Withdrawal on Sleep Macroarchitecture and Microarchitecture in Female and Male Rats
    by Marissa R Jones on June 27, 2022

    The prevalence of sleep disruptions is higher among people with alcohol use disorder (AUD), particularly during alcohol withdrawal, compared to non-AUD individuals. Although women generally have a higher risk of developing sleep disorders, few studies have investigated sex differences in sleep disruptions following chronic alcohol exposure. The present study examined sleep macroarchitecture (time spent asleep or awake and sleep onset latency) and microarchitecture (bout rate and duration and...

  • Perturbation of Cortical Excitability in a Conditional Model of PCDH19 Disorder
    by Didi Lamers on June 24, 2022

    PCDH19 epilepsy (DEE9) is an X-linked syndrome associated with cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Since heterozygous females are affected, while mutant males are spared, it is likely that DEE9 pathogenesis is related to disturbed cell-to-cell communication associated with mosaicism. However, the effects of mosaic PCDH19 expression on cortical networks are unknown. We mimicked the pathology of DEE9 by introducing a patch of mosaic protein expression in one hemisphere of the cortex of...