Genito-Pelvic Pain Disorder

Resources for Patients and Caregivers

Genito pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) is a combination of painful sex (dyspareunia) and involuntary vaginal muscle spasms (vaginismus). A persistent condition, it’s diagnosed by extreme pain or ongoing discomfort, usually while trying to have sex.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: 21-Genito-Pelvic Pain Disorder
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: 
Brain Area: 
Symptoms: combines vaginismus and dyspareunia, pain from penetration
Causes: No aversion to sexual intercouse is assumed in the diagnosis.
Therapies: dilator-practice

Resources for Physicians, Counselors and Researchers


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Determination of Sexual Attitude, Sexual Self-Consciousness, and Sociocultural Status in Women With and Without Lifelong Vaginismus: A Case-Control Study
    by Seyhan Çankaya on June 10, 2022

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction occurring in females presented as a contraction of the muscles around the vagina as a reflex, causing the failure of vaginal penetration. Although many psychological, social, and cultural factors that may cause vaginismus have been suggested, its underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual attitude, sexual self-awareness, and sociocultural status of women with and without lifelong vaginismus. This is a case-control...

  • Behavioral Therapies for Treating Female Sexual Dysfunctions: A State-of-the-Art Review
    by Gemma Mestre-Bach on May 28, 2022

    Many possible factors impact sexual wellbeing for women across the lifespan, and holistic approaches are being utilized to promote health and to address sexual concerns. Female sexual dysfunction disorders, including female orgasmic disorder, female sexual interest/arousal disorder and genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder, negatively impact quality of life for many women. To reduce distress and improve sexual functioning, numerous behavioral therapies have been tested to date. Here, we...

  • Genito Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder (GPPPD) in Spanish Women-Clinical Approach in Primary Health Care: Review and Meta-Analysis
    by María Berenguer-Soler on May 14, 2022

    Sexuality is a component of great relevance in humans. Sexual disorders are a major public health problem representing a high prevalence in the general population. DSM-5 genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) includes dyspareunia and vaginismus (DSM-IV-TR). To assess the importance of research on these disorders in Spain, we evaluated the Spanish scientific publications of primary and community care. The objective was to quantify the magnitude of the publications of GPPPD in Spanish...

  • The Biopsychosocial Puzzle of Painful Sex
    by Marta Meana on February 26, 2022

    Genital pain associated with sex is a prevalent and distressing problem with a complex research and clinical profile. This article reviews the historical context of the "sexual pain disorders" and the circuitous trajectory that has led from the first mention of painful sex in ancient documents to the latest diagnostic category of genito-pelvic pain penetration disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as well as in other existing and proposed...