A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs.
The exact cause of bipolar disorder isn’t known, but a combination of genetics, environment, and altered brain structure and chemistry may play a role.
Manic episodes may include symptoms such as high energy, reduced need for sleep, and loss of touch with reality.
Depressive episodes may include symptoms such as low energy, low motivation, and loss of interest in daily activities. Mood episodes last days to months at a time and may also be associated with suicidal thoughts.
Treatment is usually lifelong and often involves a combination of medications and psychotherapy.
Wiki Number: W023
Diagnosis: Bipolar Disorder
US Patients: 3% in lifetime
World Patients: W2%
Age Onset: Age 25
Brain Area: Below (ventral)pfc, less active on left for depression; on the right for mania.
Symptoms: 71% genetic +childhood abuse and stress; substance abuse; impulsive
Progression: 6% suicide, 35% self-harm;4 days down-months/7 days mania
Causes: dopamine higher in manic; lower in depressive; manic, glutamate higher in left pfc in manic
Medications: lithium, anti-psychotics-in-manic phase; mood-stabilizers; only lithium for children
Therapies: Teaching coping strategies for relapses and taking medication consistently
Please see the support materials for Bipolar I and for Bipolar II which follow.
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis
Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.
- Changes in major psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents from 2001 to 2020: A retrospective single-center studyby Hongyu Zheng on January 26, 2023
CONCLUSION: Although there is a significant downward trend in the percentage of hospitalizations for SCZ, it is still the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. We observed a significant increase in the percentage of hospitalizations for DD and CED. In addition, the proportion of female patients being hospitalized is on the rise, and this aspect requires continuous attention.
- The detrimental effects of smoking on the course and outcome in adults with bipolar disorder-A narrative reviewby Anna Grunze on January 26, 2023
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a modifiable risk factor causing increased risks both for mental and physical health in BD, and deserves more attention in treatment. More treatment research into pharmacological and psychosocial interventions in comorbid BD and TUD or ND are still needed to deliver evidence-based recommendations to physicians.
- Assessing atypical brain functional connectivity development: An approach based on generative adversarial networksby Pedro Machado Nery Dos Santos on January 26, 2023
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are promising analytical tools in machine learning applications. Characterizing atypical neurodevelopmental processes might be useful in establishing diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of psychiatric disorders. In this article, we investigate the potential of GANs models combined with functional connectivity (FC) measures to build a predictive neurotypicality score 3-years after scanning. We used a ROI-to-ROI analysis of resting-state functional magnetic...
- Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022: Comparisons with Other Treatment Guidelinesby Jong-Hyun Jeong on January 26, 2023
The objective of this study was to compare recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) with other recently published guidelines for treating bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of six recently published global treatment guidelines and compared treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2022 with those of other guidelines. For initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All guidelines...