A chronic disease characterized by uncontrolled drinking and preoccupation with alcohol.

Alcoholism is the inability to control drinking due to both a physical and emotional dependence on alcohol.

Symptoms include a strong need or urge to use alcohol. Those with alcohol use disorder may have problems controlling their drinking, continue to use alcohol even when it causes problems, or have withdrawal symptoms when they rapidly decrease or stop drinking.

Treatment involves counseling, such as behavioral therapy, and medications that reduce the desire to drink. Some people need medical detoxification to stop drinking safely. Mutual support groups help people stop drinking, manage relapses and cope with necessary lifestyle changes.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W0004
Diagnosis: Alcoholism
US Patients: 2016-5.1%
World Patients: 380Million
Sex Ratio: 2M-1F
Age Onset:
Brain Area: 
Symptoms: Overstimulation of GABA receptors
Progression: increasing drinking
Causes: Cirrhosis of the liver, epilesy, cancer; dementia, women more likely
Medications: Acamprosate, naltrexone, opoids,
Therapies: Alcoholics Anonymous and 12-Step programs


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Cytotoxic nortriterpenoids from the barks of Juglans cathayensis
    by Xue-Hua Li on May 17, 2022

    A chemical study of 90% ethanol extract of the barks of Juglans cathayensis resulted in the isolation of three new nortriterpenoids, jugcathenoids A-C (1-3). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, IR, UV, and MS). The isolated nortriterpenoids were tested in vitro for cytotoxic activities against 6 pancreatic cell lines. As a result, compounds 1-3 exhibited some cytotoxic activities against all the tested tumor cell lines with IC(50) values less than...

  • Dynamic human liver proteome atlas reveals functional insights into disease pathways
    by Lili Niu on May 17, 2022

    Deeper understanding of liver pathophysiology would benefit from a comprehensive quantitative proteome resource at cell type resolution to predict outcome and design therapy. Here, we quantify more than 150,000 sequence-unique peptides aggregated into 10,000 proteins across total liver, the major liver cell types, time course of primary cell cultures, and liver disease states. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that half of hepatocyte protein mass is comprised of enzymes and 23% of mitochondrial...

  • Electrochemical Deoxygenative Barbier-Type Reaction
    by Hongyu Wang on May 17, 2022

    An effective deoxygenative C(sp³)-C(sp³) bond formation reaction is achieved through electrochemical reduction of alcoholic phosphates or sulfonates with aldehydes or ketones. Alcohol derivatives of phosphates undergo single-electron reduction under electrochemical conditions followed by a spontaneous cleavage of the C-O bond with the exothermic loss of phosphate resulting in an alkyl radical species. Subsequently, radical intermediates are further reduced to carbanions at the cathode, which are...

  • Surface coverage of alcohols on carbon nanomembranes under ambient conditions
    by Neita Khayya on May 17, 2022

    Molecular adsorption on 2D membranes plays a key role in surface-mediated permeation offering selectivity benefits for chemical separation. As many vaporous compounds are demonstrated to pass through 2D membranes faster than ordinary gases, it is important to determine their surface coverage on flat substrates under realistic conditions. Here we present a viable reference system to quantify polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) measurements with organic...