Fear of places and situations that might cause panic, helplessness, or embarrassment.

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder that often develops after one or more panic attacks.

Symptoms include fear and avoidance of places and situations that might cause feelings of panic, entrapment, helplessness, or embarrassment.

Treatments include talk therapy and medication.


Cluster Number: F-1
Wiki Number: W003
Diagnosis: Agoraphobia
US Patients: 1.7% Adults
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M-2W
Age Onset: 20+
Brain Area: Extra epinephrine – poor balance
Symptoms: environment unsafe-no escape
Progression: Open spaces or outside home; may lead to 10-30 minute panic attack or PTSD
Medications: antidepressants; anti-anxiety
Therapies: relaxation, systematic desensitization, expanding exposuresCBT-50%


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Subthreshold psychiatric symptoms as potential predictors of postpartum depression
    by Amelia Rizzo on October 15, 2021

    The authors' purpose in the present study is to examine the role of subthreshold mental disorders as predictors of Postpartum Depression (PPD). 110 pregnancy women were evaluated as follow: the General 5-Spectrum Measure at 26 weeks of gestation; the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3/6 months after delivery. Only 4.5% of the sample developed PPD at 3/6 months after delivery. Agoraphobia/panic, depressed mood, social anxiety and eating problems relate positively to PPD at 3/6 months....

  • Effect of a biofeedback intervention on heart rate variability in individuals with panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial
    by Benedict Herhaus on October 15, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: HRV-BF as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological treatment seems to be an important intervention option to improve reduced HRV and decrease panic symptoms in individuals with PD. Future studies are needed to establish whether these effects translate to reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD.

  • Tips for Effective Implementation of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in Phobias-A Systematic Review
    by Marek Krzystanek on October 8, 2021

    Background: The high incidence of phobias and the limited accessibility of psychotherapy are the reasons for the search for alternative treatments that increase the availability of effective treatment. The use of virtual reality (VR) technology is an option with the potential to overcome the barriers in obtaining an effective treatment. VR exposure therapy (VRET) is based on a very similar rationale for in vivo exposure therapy. The study aimed to answer the question of how to perform exposure...

  • Exploring termination setback in a psychodynamic therapy for panic disorder
    by Thomas Nilsson on September 30, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of a TS in PDT. Resurgence of symptoms as termination approached was more common in PFPP than in PCT. Studies involving weekly assessment of primary and comorbid symptoms, as well as qualitative analyses of the patient experiences of the therapeutic process during termination, in different forms of PDT, are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).