Tourette Syndrome

A nervous system disorder involving repetitive movements or unwanted sounds.
Tourette syndrome starts in childhood.
It involves uncontrollable repetitive movements or unwanted sounds (tics), such as repeatedly blinking the eyes, shrugging shoulders, or blurting out offensive words.
Treatment may include medication or psychological therapies.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW217
Diagnosis: Tourette Syndrome
US Patients: 1% of school children and adolescents
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: Ages 5-7; increases to ages 8-12; then decreases for 2/3 dramatically, can have adult onset or adult recurrence from childhood
Brain Area: dysfunction in neural circuits around the basal ganglia, combines genetic and environmental factors; poor brain circuit connections
Symptoms: Motor tics and vocal tics with blinking, coughing, throat-clearing, sniffing, facial movements. Nearby muscles “urge” first for 90%
Progression: corprolalia (obscene, inappropriate or derogatory remarks) occurs in 10%,; obscene gestures may be “muscular tics” for a few
Causes: Heritable 10X-100X;forceps delivery, paternal age, pregnancy stress, tobacco, caffeine, alcohol or pot during pregnancy, premature
Medications: None


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Insomnia in Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder
    by Kayoko Isomura on October 25, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia is significantly associated with TS/CTD, independently from somatic disorders, familial factors or psychiatric comorbidities, although familial factors, neurodevelopmental comorbidities, and ADHD/ADHD medication may explain part of the association. Insomnia should be routinely assessed and managed in TS/CTD, particularly in chronic patients and in those with comorbid ADHD. Other sleep disorders require further study. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley...

  • Reduced Axon Calibre in the Associative Striatum of the Sapap3 Knockout Mouse
    by Eliana Lousada on October 23, 2021

    Pathological repetitive behaviours are a common feature of various neuropsychiatric disorders, including compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder or tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Clinical research suggests that compulsive-like symptoms are related to associative cortico-striatal dysfunctions, and tic-like symptoms to sensorimotor cortico-striatal dysfunctions. The Sapap3 knockout mouse (Sapap3-KO), the current reference model to study such repetitive behaviours, presents both...

  • EWAS of Monozygotic Twins Implicate a Role of mTOR Pathway in Pathogenesis of Tic Spectrum Disorder
    by Mathis Hildonen on October 23, 2021

    Tic spectrum disorder (TSD) is an umbrella term which includes Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD). They are considered highly heritable, yet the genetic components remain largely unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate disease-associated DNA methylation differences to identify genes and pathways which may be implicated in TSD aetiology. For this purpose, we performed an exploratory analysis of the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in whole blood samples...

  • Association of Prenatal Maternal Anemia with Tics and Tourette's Syndrome in Offspring
    by Yi-Chun Liu on October 23, 2021

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) accounts for most of the anemia in pregnancy, and iron is essential for neurodevelopment. Tics and Tourette's syndrome (TS) are neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest in childhood. A few studies reported an inconclusive association between iron deficiency and tics in children. No study has investigated the relationship between prenatal maternal anemia and tics in children. We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal anemia exposure and the incidence of...