Tardive Dyskinesia

A condition affecting the nervous system, often caused by long-term use of some psychiatric drugs.
Tardive dyskinesia is caused by long-term use of neuroleptic drugs, which are used to treat psychiatric conditions.
Tardive dyskinesia causes repetitive, involuntary movements, such as grimacing and eye blinking.
Stopping or tapering drugs that may be contributing to involuntary repetitive movements can help. In rare cases, botulinum toxin, deep brain stimulation, or medications can help.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW216
Diagnosis: Tardive Dyskinesia
US Patients: 30% of those taking antipsychotic medicines
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M;F+
Age Onset: elderly
Brain Area:
Symptoms: involuntary, repetitive body movements: rapid-jerking or slow-writhing; grimacing, smacking lips, sticking out tongue, eye-blinking
Progression: walking is difficult or impossible due to excess leg movement
Causes: reactions to narcoleptic drugs; reactions to long-term-use of dopamine-receptor-blocking medications; antipsychotics
Medications: supersensitivity to dopamine becomes in the nigrostriatal pathway;discontinuing the narcoleptics helps; valbenazing, etc.
Therapies: No therapies listed; newer antipsychotic drugs cause less dyskinesia than the first generation of antipsychotic drugs did.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Metoclopramide induced acute dystonic reaction: A case report
    by Mohamed Sheikh Hassan on January 24, 2022

    CONCLUSION: Metoclopramide can cause unpredictable acute dystonic reactions. This can be life-threatening and should be detected early. Extrapyramidal side effects should be monitored in patients on metoclopramide since a single dose can cause these symptoms. This case highlights an acute dystonic reaction following the administration of a metoclopromide injection.

  • Comparison of Demographic and Clinical Features of Bipolar Disorder in Persons of African and European Ancestry
    by Monica J Taylor-Desir on January 22, 2022

    CONCLUSION: The low rate of AA enrollment is consistent with other genetic studies. While clinical features of bipolar disorder are largely similar, this study identified differences in rates of trauma, substance use, and tardive dyskinesia that may represent health disparities in bipolar patients of African ancestry. Future bipolar biomarker studies with larger sample sizes focused on underrepresented populations will provide greater ancestry diversity in genomic medicine with greater...

  • Defining utility values for patients with tardive dyskinesia
    by Rajeev Ayyagari on January 20, 2022

    CONCLUSIONS: Utility decrements for TD in this study were slightly larger than previously reported values, potentially due to incorporation of QOL and social consequences in TD health state descriptions. An important limitation of this analysis is that participants' willingness to trade future years of healthy life may not indicate actual willingness to accept the life decrement. These findings can be leveraged to improve cost-effectiveness analyses used to assess the value of treatments for TD.

  • Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a meta-analysis
    by Hongyan Xu on January 19, 2022

    Long-term use of antipsychotic drugs is associated with tardive dyskinesia. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for tardive dyskinesia. Some randomized trials suggested that vitamin E can improve tardive dyskinesia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of vitamin E treatment for tardive dyskinesia. We searched internet databases for randomized controlled trials. A total of 21 studies including 854 patients with tardive dyskinesia were included in this meta-analysis....