Substance-Related Disorder

A chronic disease characterized by uncontrolled drinking and preoccupation Excessive use of psychoactive drugs, such as alcohol, pain medications, or illegal drugs. It can lead to physical, social, or emotional harm.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW215
Diagnosis: Substance-Related Disorder
US Patients: 7% of adults; 5% for alcohol; 2% for other drugs; 72,000 deaths from drug overdoses in 2017; 88,000 alcohol&480,000 tobacco deaths
World Patients: 2017-271 million (5.5% of adults) have used illicit drugs and 35 million, have an use disorder; 585,000 drug-deaths
Sex Ratio: Alcohol-only disorder 237 million men and 46 million women; 3 million alcohol-related deaths.
Age Onset: Children have 2X substance use disorders if parents hae them vs. parents without them.
Brain Area:
Symptoms: persistent use despite harm and adverse consequences: alcohol, caffeine, pot, phencyclidine, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, etc
Progression: can be mild, moderate or severe damage
Medications: detox; FDA has 2 for alcohol and opioid use; none for the cocaine, methamphetamine or other substance use disorders

Youtube Video: Substance Use Disorders-Dopamine Pathway

Youtube Video:

Substance Abuse Disorders

Amazon or Library Book:
Stahl’s Illustrated Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders

Support Group:; 800-662-4357

(U.S. Government Helpline)

Contact your local Social Security office for possible Disability Benefits through their Disability Determination Services,

Section 12.02.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Immediate release fentanyl in general practices: Mostly off-label prescribing
    by Yvette M Weesie on January 25, 2023

    CONCLUSION: IRFs are not prescribed frequently in Dutch general practices. However, when prescribed, a relatively large portion of patients received an off-label prescription.

  • Immunotherapeutic Strategies for Treating Opioid Use Disorder and Overdose
    by Rachel Luba on January 25, 2023

    INTRODUCTION: Development and implementation of effective treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD) and prevention of overdose are urgent public health needs. Though existing medications for OUD (MOUD) are effective, barriers to initiation and retention in treatment persist. Therefore, development of novel treatments, especially those that may complement existing treatments, is needed.

  • Telemedicine Use and Quality of Opioid Use Disorder Treatment in the US During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    by Ruth Hailu on January 24, 2023

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Results of this study revealed that clinical outcomes were similar among patients who were treated by clinicians with high and low telemedicine use during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting that telemedicine is a comparable alternative to in-person OUD care. There was no evidence that telemedicine was associated with increased access to or improved quality of OUD treatment.

  • Medical Costs of Substance Use Disorders in the US Employer-Sponsored Insurance Population
    by Mengyao Li on January 24, 2023

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this economic evaluation of medical expenditures in the ESI population, the per-person and total medical costs of SUDs were substantial. Strategies to support employees and their health insurance dependents to prevent and treat SUDs can be considered in terms of potentially offsetting the existing high medical cost of SUDs. Medical expenditures for SUDs represent the minimum direct cost that employers and health insurers face because not all people with SUDs have a...