Stereotypic Movement Disorder

Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes repetitive, purposeless movements. These can be hand waving, body rocking, or head banging. The movements interfere with normal activity or may cause bodily harm.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW213
Diagnosis: Stereotypic Movement Syndrome
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: genetic from the mother, birth of baby boys, can occur at any age
Brain Area:
Symptoms: child repeatedly does a nonfunctional motor behavior, e.g. hand waving or head banging) that intereferes or causes the child injury
Progression: may include rocking or rhythmic movements, self-biting, self-hitting, skinpicking, thumb-sucking, nail-biting, hair-pulling,
Causes: over-production of uric acid or deficiency in the counter-base; higher risk for those with intellectual disability
Medications: Medication(s) for gout temporarily reduces it, but does not cure it; an unspecified medication may reduce (permanent) self-injury
Therapies: May be helped by non-autistic habit-reversal-training or decoupling


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Hyperkinetic stereotyped movements in a boy with biallelic CNTNAP2 variants
    by Marcello Scala on October 13, 2021

    CONCLUSION: This case expands the molecular and phenotypic spectrum of CASPR2 deficiency disorder, suggesting that Hyperkinetic stereotyped movements may be a rare, yet significant, clinical feature of this complex neurological disorder. Furthermore, the identification of an in-frame, largely non-coding duplication in CNTNAP2 points to a sophisticated underlying molecular mechanism, likely involving impaired FOXP2 binding.

  • Heritability of Locomotor Stereotypies in Chilean Horses
    by Lisandro Muñoz on October 5, 2021

    The Chilean horse is a breed of closed registry. Stall-walking and weaving are locomotor stereotypies that affect this breed, and genetic predisposition has been suggested for both conditions. The objective of the present study was to estimate heritability of stall-walking and weaving in Chilean horses. Owners of 2,098 horses registered in the Chilean horse Stud Book, which were or had been stabled for at least 1 year, were asked to provide for identification data of the animal and presence or...

  • Dystonia as a prominent presenting feature in developmental and epileptic encephalopathies: A case series
    by Ivana Dzinovic on August 16, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: Dystonia can be a leading clinical manifestation in different DEEs. A monogenic basis of disease should be considered on the association of dystonia and developmental delay-epilepsy presentations, justifying a molecular screening for variants in DEE-associated genes.

  • Punding Behavior as a Red Flag for Dementia in a Patient With Depression: Case Report
    by Arnaud Pouchon on April 29, 2021

    Punding is defined as a stereotypic, complex, repetitive, and non-goal-oriented activity. This behavior has been observed in Parkinson's disease and chronic amphetamine users. However, in general, punding behavior is largely under-diagnosed. Here, we describe a rare case of a 53-year-old woman showing punding behavior during major depressive disorder with atypical clinical features suggestive of a frontal syndrome. Neuropsychological evaluations mainly reported deficits in executive functioning....