Reading Disorder

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words (decoding). Also called reading disability, dyslexia affects areas of the brain that process language.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW182
Diagnosis: Reading Disorder
US Patients: 5-17% of the population
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area:
Symptoms: Reading disorder breaks down into alexia (acquired dyslexia), developmental dislexia, and hyperlexia (way above average reading)
Progression: Dyslexia includes phonological (difficulty with processing sounds), rapid visual-verbal responding, and spelling.
Causes: Intelligence of dyslexics is normal, not less. Problems can be genetic. Verbal memory may also be slower.
Medications: None listed.//Dyslexia has three cognitive subtypes:auditory, visual and attentive)
Therapies: None listed, but reading specialists and local groups that tutor children, like “Raising Readers.”

Youtube Video: What are the Signs of a Reading Disorder?

Amazon or Library Books:
Helping your Child with Language-Based Learning Disabilities
Learn to Read – Phonics STORYBOOK

Click the book to link or order from Amazon.

Click the book to link or order from Amazon.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Evaluation of the multiple-deficit hypothesis among dyslexic Arabic-speaking children
    by Salim Abu Rabia on March 4, 2024

    This study examined the multiple-deficit hypothesis among Arabic-speaking elementary school students. A total of 90 students, divided into three main groups based on their performance on an Arabic word-reading task: dyslexic (n = 30), regular age-matched (n = 30), and 3rd-grade regular students, who were matched to the dyslexic group in regard to their reading proficiency level (n = 30). Participants underwent a nine-domain Arabic reading experiment that measured accuracy and fluency to evaluate...

  • Spoken verb learning in children with language disorder
    by Cheyenne Svaldi on March 3, 2024

    The current study examined spoken verb learning in elementary school children with language disorder (LD). We aimed to replicate verb learning deficits reported in younger children with LD and to examine whether verb instrumentality, a semantic factor reflecting whether an action requires an instrument (e.g., "to chop" is an instrumental verb), influenced verb learning. The possible facilitating effect of orthographic cues presented during training was also evaluated. In an exploratory analysis,...

  • A career in solving clinical-pathological conundrums: Heyde syndrome, anti-platelet factor 4 disorders, and microvascular limb ischemic necrosis
    by Theodore E Warkentin on March 3, 2024

    Hematology is a clinical specialty with strong roots in the laboratory; accordingly, the lab can help solve perplexing clinical problems. This review highlights clinical-pathological conundrums addressed during my 35-year hematology career at McMaster University. Heyde syndrome is the association between aortic stenosis and bleeding gastrointestinal (GI) angiodysplasia where the bleeding is usually cured by aortic valve replacement; the chance reading of a neonatal study showing reversible...

  • Upstream open reading frame-introducing variants in patients with primary familial brain calcification
    by Anne Rovelet-Lecrux on March 3, 2024

    More than 50% of patients with primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), a rare neurological disorder, remain genetically unexplained. While some causative genes are yet to be identified, variants in non-coding regions of known genes may represent a source of missed diagnoses. We hypothesized that 5'-Untranslated Region (UTR) variants introducing an AUG codon may initiate mRNA translation and result in a loss of function in some of the PFBC genes. After reannotation of exome sequencing data...