Wiki Number: PW171
Diagnosis: Postpartum Depression
US Patients: 15% of new mothers; 1-26% of new fathers; postpartum psychosis-.1-.2 of 1% leading to 8 per 100,000 new baby murders In the US
World Patients: 17.7% world-wide; In US, African-American women have 25%; Asian-11.5%; other mothers in-between %s.
Sex Ratio: 80% of new mothers have milder “baby blues” which resolve in two weeks.
Age Onset: 1 week to 1 month after childbirth lasting more than two weeks; may also occur after miscarriage
Brain Area: Less activity in left frontal lobe; more in right frontal lobe, decreased connectivity for emotional-regulation; more amygdala arousal
Symptoms: extreme sadness and fatigue; can also affect the child, difficulty bonding, suicidal thoughts, worry about harming self or baby
Progression: 1/3 of women experience violence from men which increases postpartum depression
Causes: horomonal changes, sleep deprivation; synthetic oxycontin to induce birth; smoking, poverty, lack of emotional support
Medications: antidepressants, unless breast-feeding; SSRIs
Therapies: CBT and Interpersonal Therapy; light aerobic exercise may help in mild or moderate cases.
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
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PubMed article’s summary-abstract.
- Do social support and community engagement act as mechanisms in the association between neighbourhood income inequality and the mental health of mothers in Calgary, Canada? A mediation analysisby G Farmer on July 2, 2022
CONCLUSION: The current study did not find clear evidence for social support or community engagement mediating the relationship between neighbourhood income inequality and maternal mental health. Future investigations should employ a broader longitudinal approach to capture changes in income inequality, potential mediators, and mental health symptomatology over time.
- Investigational Drugs for the Treatment of Depression (Part 1): Monoaminergic, Orexinergic, GABA-Ergic, and Anti-Inflammatory Agentsby Octavian Vasiliu on July 1, 2022
Therapeutic management of depression has currently important limitations, and its low efficacy is reflected in high rates of non-response even after multiple trials of antidepressants. Almost two-thirds of the patients diagnosed with major depression who received a 4-6 weeks trial of antidepressant could not reach remission, and more than 30% of these patients are considered treatment-resistant. In bipolar depression, the situation is also discouraging if we analyze the high suicide rate, the...
- Prevalence of Postpartum Depression among Women in Childbearing Age Attending Primary Health Care Centres, Qassim Regionby Huda G Alonazi on July 1, 2022
CONCLUSION: More than a quarter of women were likely to have PPD needing monitoring, diagnostic assessment and possible treatment by primary health care physicians or specialists. Comprehensive post-natal care including screening for PPD in primary health care centers is recommended.
- Effects of gonadal steroids on reward circuitry function and anhedonia in women with a history of postpartum depressionby C E Schiller on July 1, 2022
CONCLUSION: Although results do not explain differential hormone sensitivity in depression, they demonstrate significant effects of reproductive hormones on reward-related brain function in women.