A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Phobias typically result in a rapid onset of fear and are present for more than six months.
Wiki Number: PW166
Diagnosis: Phobia-Phobic Disorders
US Patients: 8.7%-18.1% suffer-may not be patients;
World Patients: Specific-6-8% in Western world; 2-4% Asia, Africa & Latin America; Social-7% US; 0.5-2.5% elsewhere; agoraphobia-1.7%
Sex Ratio: M;W2, Phobias are the most common mental illness-challenge among women.
Age Onset: Ages 10-17; During or after the event lasting 6-months to permanently; 75% of those with phobias have multiple phobias.
Brain Area: Insula involved with the autonomic functions; anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal & medial prefrontal cortexes
Symptoms: an anxiety disorder with persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Phobias can be specific, social or agoraphobia-places
Progression: Range from mild concern to panic attacks-lose control over themselves physically.
Causes: Fear conditioning; traumatizing event; observing others who fear; the basolateral amygdala keeps a memory with the hippocampus
Medications: Social phobias-antidepressants, benzodiazepines or beta blockers//EMDR-Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing
Therapies: Specific phobias (such as, spiders, snakes, heights)use-exposure therapy; social phobias-systematic desensitization, relaxation
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
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PubMed article’s summary-abstract.
- Girls' Stuff? Maternal Gender Stereotypes and Their Daughters' Fearby Antje B M Gerdes on January 24, 2022
One of the most robust findings in psychopathology is the fact that specific phobias are more prevalent in women than in men. Although there are several theoretical accounts for biological and social contributions to this gender difference, empirical data are surprisingly limited. Interestingly, there is evidence that individuals with stereotypical feminine characteristics are more fearful than those with stereotypical masculine characteristics; this is beyond biological sex. Because gender role...
- Internet-Delivered Versus Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysisby Narges Esfandiari on January 24, 2022
CONCLUSIONS: ICBT and face-to-face CBT created equivalent overall effects. in treatment of anxiety disorders. Since there have been similar systematic reviews about anxiety disorders so far, and in majority of them, ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. More research is needed to establish the general equivalence of the two treatment formats. Also, understanding what makes ICBT work is a challenge for future research.
- The effect of an education module to reduce weight bias among medical centers employees: A randomized controlled trialby Shiri Sherf-Dagan on January 23, 2022
CONCLUSIONS: A single exposure to an online education module on weight bias and knowledge about obesity may confer only a modest short-term improvement in medical center employees fat-phobic attitudes toward people with obesity. Future studies should examine if re-exposure to such intervention could impact weight bias, stigma, and discrimination among medical center staff in the long-term.
- A case of normal C1-esterase inhibitor hereditary angioedema successfully treated with berotralstatby Theodore Kelbel on January 22, 2022