A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Phobias typically result in a rapid onset of fear and are present for more than six months.
Wiki Number: PW166
Diagnosis: Phobia-Phobic Disorders
US Patients: 8.7%-18.1% suffer-may not be patients;
World Patients: Specific-6-8% in Western world; 2-4% Asia, Africa & Latin America; Social-7% US; 0.5-2.5% elsewhere; agoraphobia-1.7%
Sex Ratio: M;W2, Phobias are the most common mental illness-challenge among women.
Age Onset: Ages 10-17; During or after the event lasting 6-months to permanently; 75% of those with phobias have multiple phobias.
Brain Area: Insula involved with the autonomic functions; anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal & medial prefrontal cortexes
Symptoms: an anxiety disorder with persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Phobias can be specific, social or agoraphobia-places
Progression: Range from mild concern to panic attacks-lose control over themselves physically.
Causes: Fear conditioning; traumatizing event; observing others who fear; the basolateral amygdala keeps a memory with the hippocampus
Medications: Social phobias-antidepressants, benzodiazepines or beta blockers//EMDR-Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing
Therapies: Specific phobias (such as, spiders, snakes, heights)use-exposure therapy; social phobias-systematic desensitization, relaxation
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
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PubMed article’s summary-abstract.
- Virtual Reality Therapy in France: A Therapeutic Innovation Between Technology and Careby Elsa Forner-Ordioni on June 30, 2022
The latest form of cognitive behavioral therapy, virtual reality therapy has been developing in France since 2012, in both university hospitals and private practices. Patients receiving this therapy are immersed in a digitally created environment, using a virtual reality headset, in order to be exposed to their phobias. How does the introduction of technical objects such as the virtual reality headset affect and transform the care relationship between the patient and the therapist? Based on an...
- Cyberchondria, Covid-19 phobia, and well-being: a relational study on teachersby Neşe Karakaş on June 29, 2022
CONCLUSIONS: The study results show that increasing levels of cyberchondria trigger Covid-19 phobias in teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic and negatively affect their well-being. This descriptive study can help understand the risk group for cyberchondria, the influencing factors, and the health and economic consequences, and identify strategies for effective combating with cyberchondria.
- Genetic Variability of Incretin Receptors and Alcohol Dependence: A Pilot Studyby Evangelia Eirini Tsermpini on June 27, 2022
Alcohol dependence is a chronic mental disorder that leads to decreased quality of life for patients and their relatives and presents a considerable burden to society. Incretin hormones, such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are endogenous gut-brain peptides, which can travel across the blood-brain barrier and access the nervous system. Their respective receptors, GIPR and GLP-1R, are expressed in the reward-related brain areas and are...
- Fear of Pain as a Predictor for Postoperative Pain Intensity among the Patients Undergoing Thoracoscopic Surgeryby Yang Luo on June 27, 2022
CONCLUSIONS: Both trait FOP and state FOP were associated with higher postoperative pain reports after thoracic surgery. Trait FOP influences postoperative pain through the mediating effect of state FOP.