Persistent Depressive Disorder

A mild but long-term form of depression.

Dysthymia is defined as a low mood occurring for at least two years, along with at least two other symptoms of depression.

Examples of symptoms include lost interest in normal activities, hopelessness, low self-esteem, low appetite, low energy, sleep changes, and poor concentration.

Treatments include medications and talk therapy.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW161
Diagnosis: Persistent Depressive Disorder-Dysthymia
US Patients: 3-6% during lifetime
World Patients: 105 Mil per year (1.5% of the population)
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: 21, before 21 called “early onset”
Brain Area: In women, the corpus callosum and frontal lobes differ from normal; the amygdala, insula (sadness) and cingulate gyrus(emotions)
Symptoms: 2-years for adults; 1-year for children, deep depression with longer-lasting insomnia or hypersomnia and low self-esteem
Progression: little enjoyment in anything, suicidal behaviors, other disorders or addictions; hopelessness about life
Causes: genetic for 50% of cases; 75% have other physical illnesses, disorders or addictions; 95% have episodes of major depression.
Medications: antidepressants, but 6-8 weeks before progress; SSRIs, lithium
Therapies: cognitive therapy, better sleep, exercise


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosisĀ 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression in anorexia nervosa
    by K van der Lelie on October 14, 2021

    CONCLUSION: From the literature, clinical recommendations cannot be made binding. No randomized controlled trials have been published on this subject. However, we saw in our case study and in the literature found that clearing the depressive symptoms through electroconvulsive therapy led to an improvement in food and fluid intake. ECT has no effect on their deranged thought pattern.

  • Relating neurosteroid modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission to behaviour
    by Delia Belelli on October 13, 2021

    Studies in the 1980s revealed endogenous metabolites of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone to be potent, efficacious, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A) R). The discovery that such steroids are locally synthesised in the central nervous system (CNS) promoted the thesis that neural inhibition in the CNS may be "fine-tuned" by these neurosteroids to influence behaviour. In preclinical studies, these neurosteroids exhibited anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic...

  • Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Major Depressive Disorder
    by Shusheng Wu on October 12, 2021

    Major depression represents a complex and prevalent psychological disease that is characterized by persistent depressed mood, impaired cognitive function and complicated pathophysiological and neuroendocrine alterations. Despite the multifactorial etiology of depression, one of the most recent factors to be identified as playing a critical role in the development of depression is blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The occurrence of BBB integrity disruption contributes to the disturbance of...

  • Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review of worldwide experience after 20 years
    by Lorea Mar-Barrutia on October 11, 2021

    CONCLUSION: The present review confirms that DBS is a promising therapy for patients with severe resistant OCD, providing both ST and LT evidence of efficacy.