Persistent Depressive Disorder
A mild but long-term form of depression.
Dysthymia is defined as a low mood occurring for at least two years, along with at least two other symptoms of depression.
Examples of symptoms include lost interest in normal activities, hopelessness, low self-esteem, low appetite, low energy, sleep changes, and poor concentration.
Treatments include medications and talk therapy.
Wiki Number: PW161
Diagnosis: Persistent Depressive Disorder-Dysthymia
US Patients: 3-6% during lifetime
World Patients: 105 Mil per year (1.5% of the population)
Age Onset: 21, before 21 called “early onset”
Brain Area: In women, the corpus callosum and frontal lobes differ from normal; the amygdala, insula (sadness) and cingulate gyrus(emotions)
Symptoms: 2-years for adults; 1-year for children, deep depression with longer-lasting insomnia or hypersomnia and low self-esteem
Progression: little enjoyment in anything, suicidal behaviors, other disorders or addictions; hopelessness about life
Causes: genetic for 50% of cases; 75% have other physical illnesses, disorders or addictions; 95% have episodes of major depression.
Medications: antidepressants, but 6-8 weeks before progress; SSRIs, lithium
Therapies: cognitive therapy, better sleep, exercise
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
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reports chosen for each diagnosis
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PubMed article’s summary-abstract.
- The cardiometabolic depression subtype and its association with clinical characteristics: The Maastricht Studyby Anouk F J Geraets on July 2, 2022
CONCLUSIONS: Latent class analysis suggested a distinct cardiometabolic depression subtype. Participants with cardiometabolic depression differed from participants with non-cardiometabolic depression in terms of demographics and clinical characteristics. The existence of a cardiometabolic depression subtype may indicate the need for prevention and treatment targeting cardiometabolic risk management.
- Toward a Better Understanding of the Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of Anhedonia: Are We Ready for Translation?by Diego A Pizzagalli on July 1, 2022
Anhedonia-the loss of pleasure or lack of reactivity to pleasurable stimuli-remains a formidable treatment challenge across neuropsychiatric disorders. In major depressive disorder, anhedonia has been linked to poor disease course, worse response to psychological, pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatments, and increased suicide risk. Moreover, although some neural abnormalities linked to anhedonia normalize after successful treatment, several persist-for example, blunted activation of the...
- The Development of Illness Anxiety Disorder in a Patient After Partial Thyroidectomyby Neeraj Kancherla on June 30, 2022
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), characterises illness anxiety disorder (IAD) as the preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness in the absence of somatic symptoms (or, if present, symptoms that are only mild in severity). DSM-5 includes illness anxiety disorder in the category called somatic symptom and related disorders, characterised by prominent somatic concerns, distress, and impaired functioning. More often than in psychiatric...
- Predictors of persistent alcohol use disorder and co-occurring depressive symptoms: Insights from the longitudinal college experiences studyby Diana R Samek on June 27, 2022
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that personality factors, stress, and sleep in the first year of college may be useful targets to screen for in efforts to reduce long-term depressive symptoms in the college context. Disrupting affiliation with antisocial/substance-using peers and romantic partners and reducing the high quantity of alcohol and frequency of marijuana may be more relevant to reducing long-term problematic alcohol use. Implications for incorporating individually-tailored approaches to...