Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder

Passive-aggressive behaviors are those that involve acting indirectly aggressive rather than directly aggressive. Passive-aggressive people regularly exhibit resistance to requests or demands from family and other individuals often by procrastinating, expressing sullenness, or acting stubborn.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW155
Diagnosis: Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: Childhood and beyond into adulthood
Brain Area:
Symptoms: Pervasive pattern of negative attitudes and passive resistance to expectations of adequate performance.
Progression: Persons typically procrastinate, covertly obstruct, are inefficient and stubborn, but nice when they wish to be.
Causes: A childhood were expressions of frustration or anger was not allowed. Children repressed honest feelings.
Medications: None listed.
Therapies: Depending on the behaviors, therpists should use psychodynamic, supportive, cognitive, behavioral & interpersonal methods.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Tracing an Unyielding Work Compulsion: A Moderated Mediation Model of Abusive Supervision and Compulsory Citizenship Behavior
    by Ali T Baig on December 16, 2021

    We conceptualize and examine an integrated model of compulsory citizenship behavior in the employees of the insurance sector. For this purpose, direct and indirect influences of job demands (active-aggressive and passive-aggressive abusive supervisions) are examined on the compulsory citizenship behavior. In so doing, the relevance of perceived support of coworkers as a job resource and emotional exhaustion as an underlying mechanism is investigated. Data were collected from 205 managerial level...

  • Using interpersonal reconstructive therapy to address comorbid problems organized by attachment-based learning: The case of Don
    by Kenneth L Critchfield on December 16, 2021

    Feature heterogeneity and diagnostic overlap occur regularly among patients in clinical settings. In interpersonal reconstructive therapy (IRT), a case formulation focused on patterns learned in close attachment relationships guides intervention choices. This study illustrates how IRT formulation and treatment proceed, and how it may also fail when there is not close adherence to underlying principles. Don is a music professor in his 40's with a significant trauma history and complex diagnostic...

  • Development and Psychometric Properties of the Test of Passive Aggression
    by Christian G Schanz on May 13, 2021

    Background: To date, most research on aggression in mental disorders focused on active-aggressive behavior and found self-directed and other-directed active aggression to be a symptom and risk-factor of psychopathology. On the other hand, passive-aggressive behavior has been investigated less frequently and only in research on psychodynamic defense mechanisms, personality disorders, and dysfunctional self-control processes. This small number of studies primarily reflects a lack of a reliable and...

  • The role of personality traits on mode of delivery
    by Sabri Berkem Okten on February 5, 2021

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study that investigates the relationship between mode of delivery and personality traits according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and cognitive behavioral perspective in the literature. These personality traits can be carried at a level that is not clinically significant to create an obvious pathology, yet they might play a role as the motives behind the apparent reasons for women who request CS. Understanding women's motives and...