Panic Disorder

What is panic disorder? Panic disorder occurs when you experience recurring unexpected panic attacks. The DSM-5 defines panic attacks as abrupt surges of intense fear or discomfort that peak within minutes. People with the disorder live in fear of having a panic attack.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW150
Diagnosis: Panic Disorder
US Patients: 2.5% sometime in life
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M;W2
Age Onset: adolescence or early adulthood
Brain Area: amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal grey may all be autonomically stimulated and frightening extent
Symptoms: 1-5 or up to 20 minute duration; rapid heartbeat, dizziness, fear of losing control, going crazy or dying; choking, paralysis and others.
Progression: Treatment helps 50%, but 30% have recurrences.
Causes: PTSD, taking on too much responsibility, genetic, substance abuse-drug or alcohol;
Medications: Antidepressants, benzodiazopines, beta blockers
Therapies: learning positive self-talk helps to reduce the panic; reductions can occur within twelve weeks.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Effects of hydrogen water and psychological treatment in a sample of women with panic disorder: a randomized and controlled clinical trial
    by Ana Belén Fernández-Serrano on July 1, 2022

    Research suggests that inflammation is an important mediator in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. In addition, women are more likely to develop an anxiety and depression disorder, in comorbidity with a wide spectrum of diseases related to the immune system. In recent years, hydrogen-rich water has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and intervene in stress-related disorders, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aims to analyze the...

  • Measurement of depression in the Brazilian population: validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)
    by Iracema Lua on June 29, 2022

    We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). A study with a sample of 4,170 individuals (≥ 15 years old) from the urban area. Conglomerate sampling was adopted in two stages (census sectors and streets), with weighting of estimates by sample weights. A structured questionnaire with sociodemographic data, the PHQ - the modules for depression, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder - and the Self-Reporting...

  • Internet psychotherapeutic interventions for anxiety disorders - a critical evaluation
    by Borwin Bandelow on June 29, 2022

    CONCLUSIONS: IPIs may be a useful tool when face-to-face psychotherapy is not easily available, or as an add-on to standard psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological treatments but should perhaps not be used as monotherapy. We have suggested standards for future research and the practical use of IPIs.

  • Neurocircuitry of treatment in anxiety disorders
    by W Tommy Baumel on June 27, 2022

    CONCLUSIONS: The extant literature describing neurofunctional aspects of treatment response in anxiety disorders is best viewed as a partially constructed scaffold on which to build a clinically translatable set of robust neuroimaging biomarkers that can be used to guide treatment and to select from available treatment. The construction of this understanding will require harmonization of analytic and task approaches, larger samples, and replication of component studies.