Pain Disorder

Pain disorder is chronic pain experienced by a patient in one or more areas, and is thought to be caused by psychological stress. The pain is often so severe that it disables the patient from proper functioning.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW149
Diagnosis: Pain Disorder
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M;F+
Age Onset: Children
Brain Area:
Symptoms: Chronic pain thought to be caused by psychological stress; after accident, during illness, after drug withdrawal – but pain continues
Progression: After the pain should be gone, it increases due to attention or benefits for it.
Medications: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, trigger-point injections, surgical ablations
Therapies: CBT-talk to retrain behaviors. Lohr’s “Calming My Pain!” DVD or Download (offered on this website) may help if used as requested.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • The Potential Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Narrative Review
    by Liza Grosman-Rimon on January 24, 2022

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have diverse functions in skeletal muscles by acting through multiple signaling pathways, including growth regulation and differentiation, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. IGFs have anti-inflammatory effects and also play roles in nociceptive pathways, determining pain sensitivity, in addition to their protective role against ischemic injury in both the nervous system and skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, IGFs maintain homeostasis, playing key roles in...

  • Severe perinatal hypophosphatasia case with a novel mutation
    by Havva Yazici on January 24, 2022

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ALPL gene. Mineralization defect in bones and teeth, abnormal respiratory function, seizures, hypotonia, bone pain, and nephrocalcinosis can be observed. Clinical forms are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features. We present an infant with an enlarged anterior fontanelle, soft calvarium, fractures, respiratory distress, and seizures. Biochemical analysis showed hypercalcemia, normal serum...

  • Sleep, Positive Affect and Circulating Interleukin-6 in Women with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
    by Carly Hunt on January 24, 2022

    CONCLUSIONS: The potential salutary effects of PA on resting IL-6 erode when sleep is poor, underscoring the importance of considering sleep in conceptual and intervention models of TMD.

  • Opioids in COVID-19: Two Sides of a Coin
    by Camila Vantini Capasso Palamim on January 24, 2022

    Introduction: The treatment of most severe COVID-19 patients included the large-scale use of sedatives and analgesics-possibly in higher doses than usual-which was reported in the literature. The use of drugs that decrease mortality is necessary and opioids are important agents in procedures such as orotracheal intubation. However, these drugs seem to have been overestimated in the COVID-19 pandemic. We performed a review of the PubMed-Medline database to evaluate the use of opioids during this...