Opioid Use Disorder

Physical and psychological reliance on opioids, a substance found in certain prescription pain medications and illegal drugs like heroin.
Opioids are prescribed to treat pain. With prolonged use, pain-relieving effects may lessen and pain can become worse. In addition, the body can develop dependence. Opioid dependence causes withdrawal symptoms, which makes it difficult to stop taking them. Addiction occurs when dependence interferes with daily life. Taking more than the prescribed amount or using illegal opioids like heroin may result in death.
Symptoms of addiction include uncontrollable cravings and inability to control opioid use even though it’s having negative effects on personal relationships or finances.
Treatment varies but may include discontinuing the drug. Medications such as methadone can help alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal and cravings. Pairing medication with inpatient or support programs generally has the most success.

 

Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW144
Diagnosis: Opioid Use Disorder
US Patients: About 27 million in 2016
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M+;F
Age Onset: Young adults
Brain Area: Opioids reduce dopamine in nucleus accumbens. Neuroimaging affects in the orbitofrontal area-reducing reward-behaviors
Symptoms: strong desire to use oioids, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms & living normal lives; most US heroin users began with prescriptions
Progression: Long term use shows dysregulation of brain circuits for emotion, distress and high impulsivity.
Causes:
Medications: opioid replacement threrapy uses methadone or buprenophine and naltrexone; heroin withdrawal symptoms from 2 days-2 weeks
Therapies: CBT; Lohr’s “Calming My Pain!” (DVD or Download from this website) helps to retrain the brain to reduce pain without opioids.

4 CURRENT ARTICLES
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