Millions of people know from personal experience that smoking is a tough habit to kick. The reason is that nicotine is addictive. Even though nicotine’s high isn’t as dramatic as cocaine or heroin’s, it’s equally as addictive as those illegal drugs.
And nicotine withdrawal is very real. It’s why so many smokers try many times before they finally quit for good.
Nicotine affects all areas of your body, from your heart and blood vessels to your hormones, metabolism, and brain. When you don’t have it anymore, you go through withdrawal. You’ll physically crave that nicotine hit and become irritable if you can’t have it.
Nicotine withdrawal usually lasts only a month or so, but you could be fighting the mental battle against cigarettes for a long time.
Brain Area: binding to nicotinic receptors in the brain, increasing dopamine; opiate, serotonic, glutamic and other receptors apply in withdrawal
Symptoms: nicotine cravings, irritability, anxiety and difficulty concentrating; symptoms usually disappear after four weeks.
Causes: genetics may affect the severity of withdrawal
Medications: several medications can be used
Therapies: increased exercise, avoiding “smoking situations,” avoiding temptations, friend-support
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis
Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.
- Nicotine causes alternative polarization of macrophages via Src-mediated STAT3 activation: Potential pathobiological implicationsby Sirin Saranyutanon on October 14, 2021
Nicotine is an addictive ingredient of tobacco products and other noncigarette substitutes, including those being used for smoking cessation to relieve withdrawal symptoms. Earlier research, however, has associated nicotine with the risk and poorer outcome of several diseases, including cancer. Macrophages are an important component of the innate immune system and can have both pro-and anti-inflammatory functions depending upon their polarization state. Here, we investigated the effect of...
- Lacidipine Attenuates Symptoms of Nicotine Withdrawal in Miceby Kunal Khurana on October 6, 2021
Nicotine-withdrawal after daily exposure manifests somatic and affective symptom including a range of cognitive deficits. Earlier studies suggested participation of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in development of nicotine dependence and expression of withdrawal signs. An upsurge in Ca^(2+)-induced oxidative stress in brain underlies the biochemical events and behavioral signs of nicotine-withdrawal. The present study is aimed to explore the effects of lacidipine (LTCC antagonist) against...
- Tobacco-related cardiovascular risk in women: New issues and therapeutic perspectivesby Ingrid Allagbé on October 1, 2021
CONCLUSIONS: Stopping smoking must be a priority objective for women smokers, for primary and secondary prevention, and they should systematically be offered a validated method of cessation or even electronic cigarettes.
- How nicotine withdrawal symptoms fight each other: interpeduncular GABA neuron activity dynamically controls negative affect vs. coping behaviorby Alicia J Avelar on October 1, 2021