Nicotine Dependence

Nicotine dependence is a state of dependence upon nicotine. Nicotine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disease defined as a compulsive craving to use the drug, despite social consequences, loss of control over drug intake, and emergence of withdrawal symptoms. Tolerance is another component of drug dependence.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW133
Diagnosis: Nicotine Dependence
US Patients:
World Patients: 976 Million Smokers
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area: Nicotine stimulates receptors in the adrenal medulla and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Symptoms: Nicotine stimulates brain areas affecting reward, pleasure and anxiety and induce cravings when not involved.
Causes: Several genes are involved in dependency; compulsive craving for nicotine despite knowing consequences;
Medications: There are drugs and patches to reduce responsiveness to nicotine.
Therapies: Evidence-Based Medicine increases quitting by 2-3X.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Practice patterns of bupropion co-prescription with antipsychotic medications
    by Mohan Gautam on January 24, 2022

    Objective: Bupropion is one of the few medications with an FDA indication for smoking cessation. This is of particular significance due to the high co-morbidity of tobacco use disorder in patients with schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. We sought to determine whether historical suggestions of bupropion's pro-dopaminergic activity lead prescribers to withhold bupropion in populations receiving antipsychotic medications. Methods: The prevalence in clinical practice of the...

  • Low versus high level of response to alcohol affects amygdala functional connectivity during processing of emotional stimuli
    by Benjamin S McKenna on January 22, 2022

    CONCLUSIONS: Low LR individuals demonstrated lower functional connectivity in response both to placebo and a modest dose of ethanol. Attenuated connectivity among low LR individuals when processing emotional faces may contribute to an impaired ability to recognize alcohol intoxication in social situations and to appraise angry and happy emotions irrespective of whether alcohol is consumed.

  • Meta-Analysis of Transcriptome-Wide Association Studies across 13 Brain Tissues Identified Novel Clusters of Genes Associated with Nicotine Addiction
    by Zhenyao Ye on January 21, 2022

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified and reproduced thousands of diseases associated loci, but many of them are not directly interpretable due to the strong linkage disequilibrium among variants. Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) incorporated expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) cohorts as a reference panel to detect associations with the phenotype at the gene level and have been gaining popularity in recent years. For nicotine addiction, several important...

  • The Role of Ghrelin/GHS-R1A Signaling in Nonalcohol Drug Addictions
    by Magdalena Sustkova-Fiserova on January 21, 2022

    Drug addiction causes constant serious health, social, and economic burden within the human society. The current drug dependence pharmacotherapies, particularly relapse prevention, remain limited, unsatisfactory, unreliable for opioids and tobacco, and even symptomatic for stimulants and cannabinoids, thus, new more effective treatment strategies are researched. The antagonism of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type A (GHS-R1A) has been recently proposed as a novel alcohol addiction...