Neurodevelopmental Disorder

Types. Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain and/or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory which unfolds as an individual develops and grows.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW131
Diagnosis: Neurodevelopmental Disorders
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area:
Symptoms: a general title for fetal difficulties and damages to the brain and central nervous system:limits emotion, learning, control, etc.
Progression: many disorders, spectra and syndromes. Genetic testing after birth is needed to confirm their occurrences.
Causes: Romanian orphanages left social and language depriviation; genetics (Down and Fragile X Syndromes; immunie reactions; infectious
Medications: diseases; metabolic or nutrition disorders; physical traumas causing brain injuries within the placentas


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Roots of the Malformations of Cortical Development in the Cell Biology of Neural Progenitor Cells
    by Chiara Ossola on January 24, 2022

    The cerebral cortex is a structure that underlies various brain functions, including cognition and language. Mammalian cerebral cortex starts developing during the embryonic period with the neural progenitor cells generating neurons. Newborn neurons migrate along progenitors' radial processes from the site of their origin in the germinal zones to the cortical plate, where they mature and integrate in the forming circuitry. Cell biological features of neural progenitors, such as the location and...

  • Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) in childhood and adolescence
    by Comité Nacional de Endocrinología on January 24, 2022

    For several decades, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are the medical treatment selected for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls and boys. They generate an inhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis decreasing LH, FSH, estradiol and testosterone secretion and, in this way, they produce a regression of secondary sexual characters under treatment. In the last years, these analogs are also used in trans adolescents, in adolescents and young adults with oncological...

  • Aged Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Microglia Lifespan and Culture Methods
    by Hyun-Jung Yoo on January 24, 2022

    Microglia have been recognized as macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that are regarded as a culprit of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, microglia have been considered as a cell that should be suppressed for maintaining a homeostatic CNS environment. However, microglia ontogeny, fate, heterogeneity, and their function in health and disease have been defined better with advances in single-cell and imaging technologies, and how to maintain homeostatic microglial...

  • Dysregulation of GABAergic Signaling in Neurodevelomental Disorders: Targeting Cation-Chloride Co-transporters to Re-establish a Proper E/I Balance
    by Enrico Cherubini on January 24, 2022

    The construction of the brain relies on a series of well-defined genetically and experience- or activity -dependent mechanisms which allow to adapt to the external environment. Disruption of these processes leads to neurological and psychiatric disorders, which in many cases are manifest already early in postnatal life. GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain is one of the major players in the early assembly and formation of neuronal circuits. In the prenatal and immediate...