Major Depressive Disorder

A mental health disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life.
Possible causes include a combination of biological, psychological, and social sources of distress. Increasingly, research suggests these factors may cause changes in brain function, including altered activity of certain neural circuits in the brain.
The persistent feeling of sadness or loss of interest that characterizes major depression can lead to a range of behavioral and physical symptoms. These may include changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, daily behavior, or self-esteem. Depression can also be associated with thoughts of suicide.
The mainstay of treatment is usually medication, talk therapy, or a combination of the two. Increasingly, research suggests these treatments may normalize brain changes associated with depression.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW115
Diagnosis: Major Depressive Disorder
US Patients:
World Patients: 163 Mil; 2% of world population
Sex Ratio: M;W2
Age Onset: 20s-30s; The average duration is 23 weeks, with three more during lifetime. ½ of patients will not have another episode.
Brain Area: 102 variations in the genome linked to depression; There is an extensive description of possible brain affects on depression.
Symptoms: Has at least two weeks of depressive mood; inability to enjoy pleasure; rumination; reduced sex drive, insomnia and hypersomnia
Progression: weight and appetite may be low; fatigue, social withdrawal, suicidal thoughts; delusions or sometimes hallucinations
Causes: 40%-hereditary; response to stressors, childhood abuse. The article claims general physicians miss 2/3 of depression diagnoses.
Medications: Antidepressants-for the deeply depressed; electroconvulsive therapy
Therapies: Counseling; transcranial magnetic stimulation, light therapy, exercise, light therapy,

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Section 12.04.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Gradient boosting decision-tree-based algorithm with neuroimaging for personalized treatment in depression
    by Farzana Z Ali on January 26, 2023

    CONCLUSIONS: The pretreatment neuroimaging takes around 60 minutes but has potential to prevent weeks of failed treatment trials. This study effectively addresses common issues for neuroimaging analysis, such as small sample size, high dimensionality, and class imbalance.

  • Melatonin for premenstrual syndrome: A potential remedy but not ready
    by Wei Yin on January 26, 2023

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), a recurrent and moderate disorder that occurs during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and quickly resolves after menstruation, is characterized by somatic and emotional discomfort that can be severe enough to impair daily activities. Current therapeutic drugs for PMS such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not very satisfying. As a critical pineal hormone, melatonin has increasingly been suggested to modulate PMS symptoms. In this review, we update...

  • Changes in major psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents from 2001 to 2020: A retrospective single-center study
    by Hongyu Zheng on January 26, 2023

    CONCLUSION: Although there is a significant downward trend in the percentage of hospitalizations for SCZ, it is still the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. We observed a significant increase in the percentage of hospitalizations for DD and CED. In addition, the proportion of female patients being hospitalized is on the rise, and this aspect requires continuous attention.

  • The host genetics affects gut microbiome diversity in Chinese depressed patients
    by Ke Han on January 26, 2023

    The gut microbiome and host genetics are both associated with major depressive disorder (MDD); however, the molecular mechanisms among the associations are poorly understood, especially in the Asian, Chinese group. Our study applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) and genome-wide association analysis in the cohort with both gut sequencing data and genomics data. We reported the different gut microbiota characteristics between MDD and control groups in the Chinese group and...