Hypnotic, or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and for the treatment of insomnia, or for surgical anesthesia. This group is related to sedatives.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: PW199-B
Diagnosis: Hypnotics
US Patients: Hypnotics induce sleep, treat insomnia, or as surgical anesthesia. They actually disturb sleep, but 95% are described for insomnia in
World Patients: some countries. Most physicians try to change the environment first with better sleep hygiene, reduction of caffeine, or CBT.
Sex Ratio: When prescribed, they should be used for the shortest time necessary. Prescriptions for sleep disorders, as of 2010, 13.7% were
Age Onset: nonbenzodiazapines and 10.8% were benzodiazepines. The neuro-hormone melatonin also has an hypnotic function.
Brain Area: Benzodiazepines should not be used beyond 2-4 weeks, given intermittently at the lowest doses possible, because they disturb
Symptoms: slow wave sleep and after more use will rebound insomnia. Older adult should only use benzodiazepines if other drugs fail.
Progression: The Wikipedia article gives brief descriptions and critiques of other hypnotics. They should not be used at all with older people or
Causes: those with dementia and have other side effects.

Youtube Video: Sedatives, Hypnotics, & Anxiolytics

I could not find a book on Hypnotics on Amazon. Jim Lohr – Compiler


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Orexin dual receptor antagonists, zolpidem, zopiclone, eszopiclone, and cognitive research: A comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis
    by Mengzhen Zhou on January 26, 2023

    CONCLUSION: We recommend DORA as the best intervention for insomnia because it is highly effective in inducing and maintaining sleep without impairing cognition. Although zolpidem has a more pronounced effect on maintaining sleep, it is best to reduce its use because of its side effects. Eszopiclone and zopiclone improved sleep quality, but their safety in cognition remains to be verified.

  • Care Need Combinations for Dementia Patients with Multiple Chronic Diseases
    by Kai-Ming Jhang on January 26, 2023

    CONCLUSION: Four basic care needs were social resources referral and legal support (Care (1)), drug knowledge education (Care (3)), memory problem care (Care (5)), and fall prevention (Care (8)). Besides, disease knowledge education (Care (2)) and hypertension care (Care (16)) were frequent unmet needs in this specific population. Moreover, care for the mood of the caregiver (Care (11)) should be considered especially in dementia patients with preserved ambulatory function or with symptoms of...

  • Use of psychotropic medications in adults with intellectual disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    by Menghuan Song on January 26, 2023

    CONCLUSION: Two-fifths of adults with intellectual disability were prescribed psychotropic medications. Antipsychotics and antidepressants were used by one-third and one-seventh of adults, respectively. There was considerable variability between studies, and further investigation is required to determine the source of variability. More studies are needed to better characterise prescribed psychotropic medications, including effectiveness and adverse effects, to ensure appropriate use of these...

  • 49words: An active alert hypnosis protocol for stress regulation
    by David M Wark on January 26, 2023

    People, worldwide, are in dire need of stress regulation. This paper presents a six step alert self-hypnosis protocol that individuals can use to regulate a wide variety of stresses. A brief anonymized case reports from a diverse range of clients follows the protocol's six step outline. The step-by-step algorithm can be modified to address the unique circumstances of each client. Finally, summaries of neuroscience research provide possible explanations for the observed efficacy of the approach.