General Adaptation Syndrome

The general adaptation syndrome (GAS), developed by Hans Selye, describes the pattern of responses that the body goes through after being prompted by a stressor. There are three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W089
Diagnosis: General Adaptation Syndrome
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area: amygdala, hypothalamus, limbic system, stria terminalis, prefrontal cortex; the autonomic nervous system takes over
Symptoms: lack of coping resources to chronic stress can lead to delusions, depression and anxiety, raise serum lipids vs. heart attacks
Progression: alarm(shock&(antishock-locus coeruleus); resistancea, and exhaustion-return to homeostaisis unless chronic-PTSD
Causes: sympathetic nervous system (like “speech anxiety”) and the hypothalmic nervous system-fight-flight releasing cortisol
Medications: None Listed
Therapies: Learning coping strategies reduces stress;acute stress, short duration; (may be milder) stress, long enough to be chronic


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Comparing newborn outcomes after prenatal exposure to individual antidepressants: A retrospective cohort study
    by Claire Marks on September 29, 2021

    CONCLUSION: Duloxetine and escitalopram appear to have the strongest associations with any adaptation syndrome and NICU admission whereas bupropion and sertraline tended to have among the lowest risks of these outcomes. These results can help providers and patients discuss choice of individual antidepressant drugs during pregnancy.

  • Airway Management for Emergent Surgeries during COVID-19 Pandemic
    by Muhammad Zahoor on September 17, 2021

    Aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) performed in the operating room during general anesthesia and surgery can contaminate the operation room environment putting the anesthetist, surgeons and paramedical staff at risk of infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 has low sensitivity and is time-bound. Emergent surgical cases might not give ample time for SARS-CoV-2 evaluation. These...

  • Short bowel syndrome: From intestinal insufficiency to intestinal adaptation
    by Brune de Dreuille on September 7, 2021

    The short bowel syndrome results from an extensive intestinal resection. When intestinal function is below the minimum necessary for the absorption of macronutrients, water and electrolytes, short small bowel syndrome is responsible for chronic intestinal failure. The management is then parenteral nutrition. The evolution of the short bowel syndrome is schematically divided into three successive periods: (a) Immediate postoperative period lasting 3 to 6 weeks; (b) adaptive period lasting about 2...

  • Ruifuping pectin protects against intestinal mucosal injury in the rat exertional heat stroke model
    by Lili Xue on August 20, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: High temperature training can damage the intestinal barrier function, and induce endotoxemia and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in rats. Oral prophylactic RFP can protect the intestinal barrier function, alleviate SIRS, and promote the recovery of basic nerve reflex and muscle strength after the occurrence of EHS in rats.