General Adaptation Syndrome

The general adaptation syndrome (GAS), developed by Hans Selye, describes the pattern of responses that the body goes through after being prompted by a stressor. There are three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W089
Diagnosis: General Adaptation Syndrome
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area: amygdala, hypothalamus, limbic system, stria terminalis, prefrontal cortex; the autonomic nervous system takes over
Symptoms: lack of coping resources to chronic stress can lead to delusions, depression and anxiety, raise serum lipids vs. heart attacks
Progression: alarm(shock&(antishock-locus coeruleus); resistancea, and exhaustion-return to homeostaisis unless chronic-PTSD
Causes: sympathetic nervous system (like “speech anxiety”) and the hypothalmic nervous system-fight-flight releasing cortisol
Medications: None Listed
Therapies: Learning coping strategies reduces stress;acute stress, short duration; (may be milder) stress, long enough to be chronic


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • The dual GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptor agonist dapiglutide promotes barrier function in murine short bowel
    by Johannes Reiner on May 17, 2022

    Short bowel syndrome can occur after extensive intestinal resection, causing intestinal insufficiency or intestinal failure, which requires long-term parenteral nutrition. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) pharmacotherapy is now clinically used to reduce the disease burden of intestinal failure. However, many patients still cannot be weaned off from parenteral nutrition completely. The novel dual GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptor agonist dapiglutide has previously been shown to be highly effective in a...

  • Characteristics of overnight obstructive apnea events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome
    by J Q Wang on May 9, 2022

    Objective: To compare the overnight variation trends in the duration of obstructive apnea events, and to explore the adaptive capacity to the pathophysiological consequences of periodic sleep disordered-breathing and its underlying mechanism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: A retrospective analysis were performed of the polysomnographic (PSG) results of 89 snoring patients including 10 non-OSAHS, 15 mild, 29 moderate and 35 severe OSAHS. The total...

  • Changes in Parenteral Nutrition Requirements and BMI in Patients with Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Short Bowel Syndrome after Stopping Teduglutide-9 Years of Follow-Up
    by Zuzanna Zaczek on April 23, 2022

    Teduglutide (TED) is widely used in patients with short-bowel-syndrome-associated intestinal failure (SBS-IF) to enhance intestinal adaptation and reduce the need for parenteral support (PS). There are limited data on the effects of discontinuing TED. In this study, we describe the changes in parenteral nutrition (PN) requirements and body mass index (BMI) in a 9-year follow-up of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition after discontinuation of the TED treatment. We performed a...

  • Effects of Vertical Transmission of Respiratory Viruses to the Offspring
    by Sara Manti on April 1, 2022

    Overt and subclinical maternal infections in pregnancy can have multiple and significant pathological consequences for the developing fetus, leading to acute perinatal complications and/or chronic disease throughout postnatal life. In this context, the current concept of pregnancy as a state of systemic immunosuppression seems oversimplified and outdated. Undoubtedly, in pregnancy the maternal immune system undergoes complex changes to establish and maintain tolerance to the fetus while still...