Down Syndrome

A genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays.
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21.
Down syndrome causes a distinct facial appearance, intellectual disability, developmental delays, and may be associated with thyroid or heart disease.
Medical specialists will conduct additional screenings. Early intervention programs with a team of therapists and special educators who can treat each child’s specific situation are helpful in managing Down syndrome.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W069
Diagnosis: Down Syndrome
US Patients: 1 in 1000 babies
World Patients: 5 Mil
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset: Ave IQ-50
Brain Area: Also know as Trisomy 21 due to a third set of genes.
Symptoms: Ages 8-9 maximum mental development.
Progression: probability of a Down-born child increases with the age of the parents.
Causes: 3rd copy of Chromosome 21
Medications: None listed.
Therapies: Support and education


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • MiR-let-7d-3p inhibits granulosa cell proliferation by targeting TLR4 in polycystic ovary syndrome
    by Wei Wu on October 16, 2021

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a typical reproductive and endocrinological disorder of women at child-bearing age. In this study, we used miRNA sequencing technology and verified miR-let-7d-3p as a vital miRNA in PCOS. RT-qPCR confirmed miR-let-7d-3p was significantly increased in granulosa cells (GCs) of PCOS. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) identified the suppression of miR-let-7d-3p mimic in KGN cell proliferation and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Dual luciferase reporter assay proved that...

  • Comparison of resting-state EEG between adults with Down syndrome and typically developing controls
    by Sarah Hamburg on October 15, 2021

    CONCLUSIONS: Such EEG 'slowing' has previously been associated with cognitive decline in both DS and TD populations. These findings indicate the potential existence of a universal EEG signature of cognitive impairment, regardless of origin (neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative), warranting further exploration.

  • Opposite response of blood vessels in the retina to 6° head-down tilt and long-duration microgravity
    by Giovanni Taibbi on October 15, 2021

    The Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS), associated with the headward fluid shifts incurred in microgravity during long-duration missions, remains a high-priority health and performance risk for human space exploration. To help characterize the pathophysiology of SANS, NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software was used to map and quantify vascular adaptations in the retina before and after 70 days of bed rest at 6-degree Head-Down Tilt (HDT), a well-studied microgravity...

  • Burden of illness in infants and young children hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus: A rapid review
    by Aireen Wingert on October 15, 2021

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are common among young children and represent a significant burden to patients, their families and the Canadian health system. Here we conduct a rapid review of the burden of RSV illness in children 24 months of age or younger. Four databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, from 2014 to 2018), grey literature and reference lists were reviewed for studies on the following: children with or without a risk...