Cocaine dependence is a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by persistent use of cocaine despite substantial harm and adverse consequences.
Wiki Number: W044
Diagnosis: Cocaine Dependence
US Patients: 6000 deaths annually
Sex Ratio: M;W3
Age Onset: 13-4X vs. 19
Brain Area: overdoses can constrict blood vessels in the brain and heart – causing damage
Symptoms: positively-high energy; negatively-high body temperatures, irregular heart beat, death, amphetamine psychosis,
Progression: large doses cause mood swings, paranoia, insomnia, psychosis, high blood pressure, panic attacks, cognitive impairments
Causes: 15% of users become dependent in two years
Medications: None investigated were effective.
Therapies: 12-Step Cocaine Anonymous; CBT – both have low success rates
4 CURRENT ARTICLES
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- Methylation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is dysregulated by cocaine dependence in the human striatumby Kathryn Vaillancourt on October 25, 2021
Cocaine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disorder caused by lasting changes in the brain. Animal studies have identified cocaine-related alterations in striatal DNA methylation; however, it is unclear how methylation is related to cocaine dependence in humans. We generated methylomic profiles of the nucleus accumbens using human postmortem brains from a cohort of individuals with cocaine dependence and healthy controls (n = 25 per group). We found hypermethylation in a cluster of CpGs within...
- Assessing combinatorial effects of HIV infection and former cocaine dependence on cognitive control processes: A functional neuroimaging study of response inhibitionby Kathryn-Mary Wakim on October 25, 2021
Individuals with a diagnosis of co-morbid HIV infection and cocaine use disorder are at higher risk of poor health outcomes. Active cocaine users, both with and without HIV infection, show clear deficits in response inhibition and other measures of executive function that are instrumental in maintaining drug abstinence, factors that may complicate treatment. Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence indicate normalization of executive control processes in former cocaine users as a function of the...
- Social Interaction With Relapsed Partner Facilitates Cocaine Relapse in Ratsby Shiqiu Meng on October 21, 2021
Social factors strongly contribute to drug use and relapse, and epidemiological studies have found that members of peer groups influence each other to use drugs. However, previous animal models mostly failed to incorporate social factors and demonstrate the effects of social partners on drug addiction and relapse. In the present study, we investigated the transfer of relapse to cocaine seeking between drug-addicted partners in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-housed and subjected to...
- Switching the aptamer attachment geometry can dramatically alter the signalling and performance of electrochemical aptamer-based sensorsby Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia on October 21, 2021
Electrochemical aptamer-based (EAB) sensors, composed of an electrode-bound DNA aptamer with a redox reporter on the distal end, offer the promise of high-frequency, real-time molecular measurements in complex sample matrices and even in vivo. Here we assess the extent to which switching the aptamer terminus that is electrode-bound and the one that is redox-reporter-modified affects the performance of these sensors. Using sensors against doxorubicin, cocaine, and vancomycin as our test beds, we...