Cocaine Dependence

Cocaine dependence is a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by persistent use of cocaine despite substantial harm and adverse consequences.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W044
Diagnosis: Cocaine Dependence
US Patients: 6000 deaths annually
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M;W3
Age Onset: 13-4X vs. 19
Brain Area: overdoses can constrict blood vessels in the brain and heart – causing damage
Symptoms: positively-high energy; negatively-high body temperatures, irregular heart beat, death, amphetamine psychosis,
Progression: large doses cause mood swings, paranoia, insomnia, psychosis, high blood pressure, panic attacks, cognitive impairments
Causes: 15% of users become dependent in two years
Medications: None investigated were effective.
Therapies: 12-Step Cocaine Anonymous; CBT – both have low success rates


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Current Trends and Perspectives in the Immune Therapy for Substance Use Disorders
    by Octavian Vasiliu on May 16, 2022

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are an extremely challenging category of disorders because of the high rate of relapse, lower life expectancy, important rate of psychiatric and somatic co-morbidity, lack of patients' insight during most of the disease duration, healthcare costs, etc. One of the reasons to consider these disorders very difficult for physicians and the healthcare system is the lack of adequate pharmacological agents with long-term proven efficacy. So far, there are no Food and Drug...

  • A retrospective analysis of data from illicit drug abuse cases in Beijing between 2018 and 2020
    by Shan Li on May 14, 2022

    The overall number of drug abuse cases has been on the rise around the world, causing it a disaster in many countries. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the characteristics of 11,903 drug abuse cases in Beijing, the capital of China, in the perspective of age, gender, nationality, region, season, type of specimens and various drugs, respectively. The case information was collected by the national-level forensic toxicology laboratory, which belongs to the China University of Political...

  • Cocaine affects astrocyte activation and iNOS expression
    by Marina Fandaros on May 13, 2022

    It is estimated that there are more than two million people addicted to cocaine in the United States. How cocaine affects neuronal functions has been extensively studied. Astrocytes, an important member of the neurovascular unit, also play significant roles in brain pathology. However, their role in cocaine use disorder is unclear. Astrocytes are glial cells that support the neurons and maintain the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes can express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that is...

  • Diurnal Variation in Motivation, Cocaine Value, and In Vivo Dopamine Release
    by Melody C-L Iacino on May 13, 2022

    Circadian rhythms have been shown to influence a number of psychiatric disorders, like substance use disorder (SUD). For example, individuals with evening chronotypes (i.e. night owls) express higher vulnerability to drug-craving and drug-taking behaviors. Similarly, the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which is an essential circuit in these behaviors, exhibits diurnal rhythms in activity and function. Although diurnal rhythms have been documented in both drug-taking and DA dynamics, it remains...