Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder is a mental health disorder that impacts the way you think and feel about yourself and others, causing problems functioning in everyday life. It includes self-image issues, difficulty managing emotions and behavior, and a pattern of unstable relationships.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W026
Diagnosis: Borderline Personality Disorder
US Patients: 1.6% in a year
World Patients:
Sex Ratio: M;F3
Age Onset: 18
Brain Area: frontolimbic neurons; hippocampus; orbitofrontal cortex; amygdala; dopamine
Symptoms: unstable relationships, strong emotional reactions, self-harm; paranoia
Progression: fear rejection and abandonment; highly impulsive, self-harm by cutting
Causes: child abuse; ptsd; heritability-50%;smaller amygdala, hippocampus – smaller; dopamine and estrogen involved
Medications: None help, but antipsychotics may reduce suicidal intentions; mood stabilizers may avert suicides.
Therapies: CBT helped 50% with personal relationships but lower percentages with vocational situations.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

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PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • History of the formation of views on schizotypal disorder in childhood
    by A V Goryunov on October 25, 2021

    The article reflects the stages of development of views on schizotypal disorder (STD) in adults and children from the prenosological period to the present. It is shown how, after the recognition by the majority of psychiatrists of the concept of early dementia proposed by E. Kraepelin, there is a gradual recognition of the single essence of schizophrenia for childhood and adulthood, but with different, specific clinical manifestations at different age periods. The study of variants of...

  • Psychometric Properties of the Italian Mentalization Questionnaire: Assessing Structural Invariance and Construct Validity
    by Giulia Raimondi on October 25, 2021

    Mentalization is an important interpersonal ability, necessary for adaptive interpersonal relationships and emotion regulation. Deficits in mentalization have been associated with poor psychological outcomes and have been observed in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. The Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ) has been developed as self-report measure of mentalization deficit. The aim of the study was to investigate the dimensionality of the MZQ in a nonclinical sample composed of Italian...

  • 'Rich' and 'poor' in mentalizing: Do expert mentalizers exist?
    by Simon Rogoff on October 25, 2021

    Mentalization theory is concerned with the capacity to notice, and make sense of, thoughts and feelings in self and others. This development may be healthy or impaired and therefore, by extension, it may be theorized that expertise in mentalizing can exist. Furthermore, a continuum from impairment to expertise should exist within separate dimensions of mentalizing: of self and of others. This study hypothesized that three groups would be distinguishable on the basis of their mentalizing...

  • Borderline personality disorder
    by Martin Bohus on October 24, 2021

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental disorder with a high burden on patients, family members, and health-care systems. The condition was previously regarded as untreatable, but progress in understanding and management has resulted in earlier diagnosis and better treatment outcomes. A coherent syndrome of BPD typically onsets during adolescence (after age 12 years). BPD is often preceded by or co-develops with symptoms of internalising disorders (depression and anxiety),...