Avoidant & Restrictive Food Intake

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), previously known as feeding disorder, is a type of eating disorder in which people eat only within an extremely narrow repertoire of foods.[1] It is a serious mental health condition that causes the individual to restrict food intake by volume and/or variety.[2] This avoidance may be based on appearance, smell, taste, texture (because of sensory sensitivity), brand, presentation, fear of aversive consequences, lack of interest in food, or a past negative experience with the food, to a point that may lead to nutritional deficiencies, failure to thrive, or other negative health outcomes.[2][3][4] The fixation is not caused by a concern for body appearance or in an attempt to lose weight. [5]


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W020
Diagnosis: Avoidant & Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
US Patients:
World Patients:
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area:
Symptoms: eat only a very narrow menu of foods; cannot change eating habits
Progression: may exclude all fruits or all vegetable; certain certain colors, soft, etc. May still have digestive problems.
Medications: relaxation, systematic desensitization and review
Therapies: With adults, may disappear spontaneously; with cognitive behavior therapies.

Yuoutube Video: Living with Avoidant Restrictive

Food Intake Disorder

Amazon or Library Book: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

(Talking Therapy) for Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

Click the book to link or order from Amazon.

Support Group: balancedtx.com, prior sign-up is required. (This group is based in New York City. I don’t know if it includes other areas.)

Contact your local Social Security office for possible Disability Benefits through their Disability Determination Services, Section 12.08.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • International consensus on patient-centred outcomes in eating disorders
    by Amelia Austin on September 28, 2023

    The effectiveness of mental health care can be improved through coordinated and wide-scale outcome measurement. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement has produced collaborative sets of outcome measures for various mental health conditions, but no universal guideline exists for eating disorders. This Position Paper presents a set of outcomes and measures for eating disorders as determined by 24 international experts from professional and lived experience backgrounds. An...

  • Current evidence for avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: Implications for clinical practice and future directions
    by Tanith Archibald on September 27, 2023

    CONCLUSION: Prevalence studies highlight the need for referral and care pathways to be embedded across a range of health care services. While research into ARFID is increasing, further studies across all areas of ARFID are required and there remains a pressing need for guidance on systematic assessment, evidence-based management, and optimal service delivery models. Informed clinical practice is currently predominantly reliant on expert consensus and small-scale studies, with ongoing routine...

  • ARFID at 10¬†years: A Review of Medical, Nutritional and Psychological Evaluation and Management
    by Martin Fisher on September 27, 2023

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a diagnostic term that was established 10 years ago to describe those patients with an eating disorder, mostly children and adolescents, who have poor nutrition that is not due to body image or weight concerns. This article reviews the diagnosis and subtypes of ARFID, as well as the medical, nutritional and psychological principles of evaluation and management of the disorder.

  • Modification of an inpatient medical management protocol for pediatric Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder: improving the standard of care
    by Sasha Gorrell on September 22, 2023

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate the likely need to tailor established medical inpatient protocols for those with ARFID given different symptom presentation and maintenance factors compared to patients with anorexia nervosa. Further research is warranted to explore the longer-term impact of protocol changes and to inform standardization of care for this high priority clinical population across care sites.