Amphetamine Dependence

Amphetamine dependence refers to a state of psychological dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. In individuals with substance use disorder, psychotherapy is currently the best treatment option as no pharmacological treatment has been approved.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W1010
Diagnosis: Amphetamine Dependence
US Patients:
World Patients: 2013-3788 Deaths
Sex Ratio:
Age Onset:
Brain Area: Reduces dopamine in brain
Symptoms: Euphoria, intense thought, wants to move
Medications: Psychostimulants may substitute

Youtube Video: Amphetamines

Amazon or Library Book: Amphetamines and Other Stimulants

Amazon or Library Book: Ice Age . . Crystal Meth Addiction

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Support Group:,

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The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy: an addiction medicine perspective
    by Vincenzo Somma on January 24, 2023

    Methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MaCM) is an increasingly recognised serious complication from methamphetamine (MA) use. It is characterised as the development of otherwise unexplained heart failure in the context of MA use. MaCM predominantly affects a young and vulnerable population with high morbidity and mortality. It is the second leading cause of mortality in patients with MA use disorder (MUD). Our understanding of MaCM pathogenesis is based on observational cohorts and autopsy...

  • Does illicit amphetamine seizures quantity associated with amphetamine use disorder related admissions in Saudi Arabia?
    by Majed Ramadan on January 10, 2023

    CONCLUSION: The current study found that reported amphetamine seized quantities were significantly and positively associated with the increase of amphetamine use disorder-related admission rates. In 2018, both ATS seized quantities and admission rates significantly increased, nearly doubling from the previous year. Rigorous, and multidisciplinary interventional studies to evaluate factors associated with increasing abuse of ATS should be a priority for policymakers and researchers in Saudi.

  • Sex-specific metabolic signatures in methamphetamine addicts
    by Zhen Cheng on December 28, 2022

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a commonly abused addictive psychostimulant, and METH-induced neurotoxic and behavioural deficits are in a sex-specific manner. However, there is lack of biomarkers to evaluate METH addiction in clinical practice, especially for gender differences. We utilized ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to detect the serum metabolomics in METH addicts and controls, specially exploring the sex-specific metabolic alterations by METH...

  • Troriluzole inhibits methamphetamine place preference in rats and normalizes methamphetamine-evoked glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) protein levels in the mesolimbic pathway
    by Sonita Wiah on December 15, 2022

    Riluzole, approved to manage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is mechanistically unique among glutamate-based therapeutics because it reduces glutamate transmission through a dual mechanism (i.e., reduces glutamate release and enhances glutamate reuptake). The profile of riluzole is favorable for normalizing glutamatergic dysregulation that perpetuates methamphetamine (METH) dependence, but pharmacokinetic and metabolic liabilities hinder repurposing. To mitigate these limitations, we synthesized...