PLoS One. 2022 Aug 19;17(8):e0273327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273327. eCollection 2022.
The cognitive impairment, depression, a decrease in the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), and salivary gland dysfunction, as indicated by the reduction of alpha-amylase activity, have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the effects of depression on cognitive function, salivary alpha-amylase activity, and ADLs in T2DM patients have never been investigated. In this study, 115 participants were divided into three groups, including 30 healthy people, 50 T2DM patients without depression, and 35 T2DM patients with depression. Then, the cognitive function, the level of depression, salivary-alpha amylase activity, ADLs, and metabolic parameters were determined. Results showed that T2DM patients had hyperglycemia and cognitive impairment. A decrease in the salivary alpha-amylase activity was observed in T2DM patients. Interestingly, T2DM patients with depression had higher level of hyperglycemia and cognitive impairment than T2DM patients. Additionally, cognitive function was associated with the salivary-alpha amylase activity in T2DM without depression, while the severity of depression was associated with the salivary-alpha amylase activity in T2DM patients with depression. Therefore, we concluded that T2DM caused the impairment of metabolism, decreased salivary alpha-amylase activity, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, T2DM patients with depression had higher level of hyperglycemia and cognitive decline than T2DM patients.