A learning disorder characterized by difficulty reading.
Dyslexia occurs in children with normal vision and intelligence.
Symptoms include late talking, learning new words slowly, and a delay in learning to read.
Most children with dyslexia can succeed in school with tutoring or a specialized education program.


Cluster Number:
Wiki Number: W072
Diagnosis: Dyslexia
US Patients:
World Patients: 3-7%
Sex Ratio: M+;W
Age Onset: Ages 3-5
Brain Area:
Symptoms: reversing letters in words is not standard behavior in dyslexia.
Causes: poor awareness of sounds, pronouncing them inaccurately and poorer working (short-term) memory; family similarities
Medications: None listed.
Therapies: Children benefit from training&practice of graphemes (written language) to phonemes (spoken sounds), Many tests for it.


The world-wide medical research
reports chosen for each diagnosis 

Clicking each title opens the
PubMed article’s summary-abstract.

  • Maladaptive compensation of right fusiform gyrus in developmental dyslexia: A hub-based white matter network analysis
    by Tianqiang Liu on October 24, 2021

    Cognitive theories have been proposed to clarify the causes and symptoms of dyslexia. However, correlations between local network parameters of white matter connectivity and literacy skills remain poorly known. An unbiased hypothesis-free approach was adopted to examine the correlations between literacy symptoms (reading and spelling) and hub-based white matter networks' connectivity parameters [nodal degree fractional anisotropy (FA) values] of 90 brain regions based on Anatomical Atlas Labels...

  • Towards a Comprehensive Account of Rhythm Processing Issues in Developmental Dyslexia
    by Tamara Rathcke on October 23, 2021

    Developmental dyslexia is typically defined as a difficulty with an individual's command of written language, arising from deficits in phonological awareness. However, motor entrainment difficulties in non-linguistic synchronization and time-keeping tasks have also been reported. Such findings gave rise to proposals of an underlying rhythm processing deficit in dyslexia, even though to date, evidence for impaired motor entrainment with the rhythm of natural speech is rather scarce, and the role...

  • Is Developmental Dyslexia Due to a Visual and Not a Phonological Impairment?
    by Reinhard Werth on October 23, 2021

    It is a widely held belief that developmental dyslexia (DD) is a phonological disorder in which readers have difficulty associating graphemes with their corresponding phonemes. In contrast, the magnocellular theory of dyslexia assumes that DD is a visual disorder caused by dysfunctional magnocellular neural pathways. The review explores arguments for and against these theories. Recent results have shown that DD is caused by (1) a reduced ability to simultaneously recognize sequences of letters...

  • Predicting Dyslexia and Reading Speed in Adolescents from Eye Movements in Reading and Non-Reading Tasks: A Machine Learning Approach
    by Alae Eddine El Hmimdi on October 23, 2021

    There is evidence that abnormalities in eye movements exist during reading in dyslexic individuals. A few recent studies applied Machine Learning (ML) classifiers to such eye movement data to predict dyslexia. A general problem with these studies is that eye movement data sets are limited to reading saccades and fixations that are confounded by reading difficulty, e.g., it is unclear whether abnormalities are the consequence or the cause of reading difficulty. Recently, Ward and Kapoula used LED...